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hypertension

hypertension

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Published by gilma

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Published by: gilma on Aug 25, 2008
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07/24/2013

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Objectives
In presenting the case of Mrs. Candelario, several objectives havebeen taken into consideration. These objectives include:a.Gather related literature significant to the condition of thepatient for a more complete understanding of HYPERTENSIONand how to properly care for such a case.b.Evaluate the condition of the client by getting pertinent datathrough history, physical assessment, and laboratory tests inorder to come up with appropriate nursing diagnoses that will helpaid in his recovery.c.Discuss the pathophysiology or the actions that the hypertensiontakes on a patient’s body.d.Prepare nursing care plans suitable for the subjective andobjective symptoms and/or complaints manifested and/orverbalized by the patient.e.Evaluate the result of nursing care provided, and to makenecessary changes as needed.f.Educate the patient regarding hypertension and how she can helpcare for herself outside the hospital.
 
Introduction
Although certain hormonal abnormalities cause hypertension, the vastmajority of cases are secondary to genetic factors, obesity, age andinactivity. Smoking, diabetes and excess alcohol consumption makehypertension worse. Salt intake does not play as great a role in the controlor cause of high blood pressure as was once commonly believed.High blood pressure (BP >140/90 mm Hg, as defined by the
 
WorldHealth Organization) occurs in acute stroke in up to 75%
 
of cases.Subsequently, BP settles over a period of about
 
a week, although 40% ofpatients remain hypertensive. High blood pressure (HBP) or hypertensionmeans high pressure (tension) in the arteries. Arteries are vessels thatcarry blood from the pumping heart to all the tissues and organs of thebody. High blood pressure does not mean excessive emotional tension,although emotional tension andstresscan temporarily increase bloodpressure. Normal blood pressure is below 120/80; blood pressure between120/80 and 139/89 is called "pre-hypertension", and a blood pressure of140/90 or above is considered high.The top number, the systolic blood pressure, corresponds to the pressure inthe arteries as the heart contracts and pumps blood forward into thearteries. The bottom number, the diastolic pressure, represents thepressure in the arteries as the heart relaxes after the contraction. Thediastolic pressure reflects the lowest pressure to which the arteries areexposed.
-
History
Based on the dissection of ancient Egyptian mummies, high bloodpressure (
hypertension
) has been a health problem since the early Egyptianempires. The blood pressure cuff was invented in 1896, but it wasn't untilthe 1950s that we became aware of the importance of high blood pressureas a herald of the complications commonly attributed to "old age". Recentresearch has shown a critical relationship between high blood pressure andstrokes, heart attacks, congestive heart failure, and vascular disease, whichtogether comprise the leading cause of death in the United States for menand women.
 
-Epidemiology I
Hypertension is the most common primary diagnosis and most commoncause of death in the United States (Whelton, 2002; Brashers, 2006). It isestimated that 50 million Americans are affected by hypertension. Of these50 million, only 70% (35 million) are aware of their condition. In addition,only 50% (17.5 million) of those aware of their condition are receivingtreatment. Remarkably, only 25 % of all hypertensive patients have theirblood pressure under control (Brashers). More men have hypertension thanwomen in early life, but this disparity practically disappears by the 6
th
decade (Whelton). The life-long risk of developing hypertension innormotensives after the sixth decade of life is approximately 90%. Theincidence and prevalence of hypertension is about 50% higher in African-American adults compared with their counterparts who are white orMexican-American (Whelton).
-Epidemiology II
Hypertension is a risk factor for coronary artery disease, congestiveheart failure, stroke and renal failure (Brashers, 2006). Risk factors in allpopulations include age, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, family history, smoking,alcohol, high sodium intake, low potassium or magnesium intake, and the useof NSAIDS (Brashers). Each 20mm Hg increase in systolic pressure or10mmHg increase in diastolic pressure above normal increases cardiovascularrisk twofold (Brashers).

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