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التحولات السريعة والتحولات البطيئة

التحولات السريعة والتحولات البطيئة

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الاكسدة والإختزال ، التحول السريع والتحول البطيء ، العوامل الحركية
الاكسدة والإختزال ، التحول السريع والتحول البطيء ، العوامل الحركية

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03/06/2014

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ذ.لاا 
www.ibnalkhatib2.canalblog.com 
ﺔﺌﻴﻄﺒﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﻮﺤﺘﻟﺍ ﻭ ﺔﻌﻳﺮﺴﻟﺍ ﺕﻻﻮﺤﺘﻟﺍ
Transformations lentes et transformations rapides
(
 
b  ]b  ]b  ]b  ]))))  [a   [a   [a   [a ((((
I
1.1
((((ﻒﻳﺭﺎﻌﺗ:
ﺪﺴﻛﺆﻤﻟﺍﺮﺜﻛﺃ ﻭﺃ ﻥﻭﺮﺘﻜﻟﺇ ﺏﺎﺴﺘﻛﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺭﺩﺎﻗ ﻲﺋﺎﻴﻤﻴﻛ ﻉﻮﻧ.
ﺮﺜﻛﺃ ﻭﺃ ﺎﻧﻭﺮﺘﻜﻟﺇ ﻥﺍﺬﻘﻓ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺭﺩﺎﻗ ﻲﺋﺎﻴﻤﻴﻛ ﻉﻮﻧ ﻝﺰﺘﺨﻤﻟﺍ.
ﻝﺍﺰﺘﺧﺍﻭ ﺓﺪﺴﻛﺃ ﻞﻋﺎﻔﺗ ﻝﻼﺧ ﻪﻟ ﻖﻓﺍﺮﻣ ﻝﺰﺘﺨﻣﻭ ﺪﺴﻛﺆﻣ ﻦﻣ ﻝﺰﺘﺨﻣ ﺪﺴﻛﺆﻣ ﺔﺟﻭﺩﺰﻣ ﻥﻮﻜﺘﺗ.
 
ﻝﺰﺘﺨﻣ
= ne
-
++++
 ﻣ ﺴﻛﺆ ﺪ 
 
2.1
(ﺔﻠﺜﻣﺃ
:
Fe
2+
+2e
-
=
FeFe
2+
 / FeFe
2+
= Fe
3+
+ e
-
 Fe
3+
/ Fe
2+
 MnO
4-
+ 8H
+
+5e
-
= Mn
2+
+4 H
2
O
MnO
4-
/ Mn
2+
 اوا دودا 
3.1
(ﻝﺍﺰﺘﺧﻻﺍﻭ ﺓﺪﺴﻛﻷﺍ ﻞﻋﺎﻔﺗ
ﺓﺪﺴﻛﻷﺍ ﻞﻋﺎﻔﺗﺪﺴﻛﺆﻣ ﻦﻴﺘﺟﻭﺩﺰﻣ ﻦﻴﺑ ﻲﻧﻭﺮﺘﻜﻟﺇ ﻝﺩﺎﺒﺗ ﻪﻟﻼﺧ ﻢﺘﻳ ﻞﻋﺎﻔﺗ ﻝﺍﺰﺘﺧﻻﺍﻭ – ﻝﺰﺘﺨﻣﻞﻋﺎﻔﺘﻟﺍ ﺙﺪﺤﻳ ، ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ ﺔﺟﻭﺩﺰﻤﻠﻟ ﻯﻮﻗﻷﺍ ﻝﺰﺘﺨﻤﻟﺍ ﻭ ﻰﻟﻭﻷﺍ ﻯﻮﻗﻷﺍ ﺪﺴﻛﺆﻤﻟﺍ ﻦﻴﺑ. 
 
oxyd
1
+ n
1
e
-
 
=réd
1
(x n
2
)réd
2
=oxyd
2
+ n
2
e(x n
1
)
 
n
2
.oxyd
1
+ n
1
.réd
2
=
n
2
.réd
1
+ n
1
.oxy
2
 
 ﻔﺗ ﻝﻼﺧﺎ ﻝﺰﺘﺨﻤﻟﺍ ﻑﺮﻃ ﻦﻣ ﺓﺩﻮﻘﻔﻤﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻧﻭﺮﺘﻜﻟﻻﺍ ﺩﺪﻋ ﻝﺍﺰﺘﺧﻻﺍﻭ ﺓﺪﺴﻛﻷﺍ ﻞﻋ
réd
2
ﻱﻭﺎﺴﻳﺕﺎﻧﻭﺮﺘﻜﻟﻻﺍ ﺩﺪﻋﻑﺮﻃ ﻦﻣ ﺔﺒﺴﺘﻜﻤﻟﺍ
oxyd
1
. 
ﻝﺎﺜﻣ: 
MnO
4-(aq)
+ 8H
+(aq)
+ 5e
-
= Mn
2+(aq)
+ 4H
2
O (x1)Fe
2+(aq)
= Fe
3+(aq)
+ e
-
(x 5)5Fe
2+(aq)
+ MnO
4-(aq)
+ 8H
+(aq)
 
=
 5Fe
3+(aq)
+ Mn
2+(aq)
+ 4H
2
O
II
((((^ _b^ _b^ _b^ _b
 
^\ _b^\ _b^\ _b^\ _b 
 
ذ.لاا 
www.ibnalkhatib2.canalblog.com
1.2
(ﺔﻴﺋﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻛﺮﺤﻟﺍ 
La cinétique chimique
 
ﺔﻴﻛﺮﺤﻟﺍ ﻢﺘﻬﺗﺍﺭﺪﺑ ﺔﻴﺋﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻟﺍﺔﻴﺋﺎﻴﻤﻴﻜﻟﺍ ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻤﻟﺍ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ ﺔﺳ)ﻝﺎﻘﺘﻧﻻﺍ ﻊﺒﺘﺗﺞﺗﺍﻮﻨﻟﺍ ﻰﻟﺇ ﺕﻼﻋﺎﻔﺘﻤﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ(ﻝﻼﺧ ﻦﻣﺰﻟﺍ
.... 
2.2
((((
ﻊﻳﺮﺴﻟﺍ ﻝﻮﺤﺘﻟﺍ 
Transformation rapide
 
ﻲﻫﻻ ﺕﻻﻮﺤﺗﻦﻜﻤﻳﺔﻳﺩﺎﻴﺘﻋﻻﺍ ﺱﺎﻴﻘﻟﺍ ﺓﺰﻬﺟﺃ ﻭﺃ ﺓﺩﺮﺠﻤﻟﺍ ﻦﻴﻌﻟﺍ ﺔﻄﺳﺍﻮﺑ ﺎﻬﻌﺒﺘﺗ.  ﻝﺎﺜﻣ:ﺐﻴﺳﺮﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﻼﻋﺎﻔﺗ)ﺔﻳﺰﻠﻓ ﺕﺎﻧﻮﻳﺃ ﻊﻣ ﺍﺩﻮﺼﻟﺍ(ﺀﺍﻮﻬﻟﺍ ﻲﻓ ﻥﺎﺗﻮﺒﻟﺍ ﺯﺎﻏ ﻕﺍﺮﺘﺣﺍ...... 
3.2
(
ﺀﻲﻄﺒﻟﺍ ﻝﻮﺤﺘﻟﺍ
Transformation lente
 
ﺔﻳﺩﺎﻴﺘﻋﻻﺍ ﺱﺎﻴﻘﻟﺍ ﺓﺰﻬﺟﺃ ﻭﺃ ﺓﺩﺮﺠﻤﻟﺍ ﻦﻴﻌﻟﺍ ﺔﻄﺳﺍﻮﺑ ﺎﻬﻌﺒﺘﺗ ﻦﻜﻤﻳ ﺕﻻﻮﺤﺗ ﻲﻫﺮﺜﻛﺃ ﻭﺃ ﻲﻧﺍﻮﺜﻟﺍ ﺾﻌﺑ ﻝﻼﺧ. 
:::: [  a\  a  [  a\  a  [  a\  a  [  a\  a    )))) P P P P((((
 
ﻂﻴﻠﺧ
50ml
ﻦﻣ
(K
+
+ I
-
)
ﻩﺰﻴﻛﺮﺗ
C
r
=0,2mol.l
-1
ﻭ
50ml
ﻲﻨﻴﺠﻴﺴﻛﻭﻷﺍ ﺀﺎﻤﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ
H
2
O
2
ﻩﺰﻴﻛﺮﺗ
10
-2
mol.l
-1
 
C
o
=
 ﻴﺘﻳﺮﺒﻜﻟﺍ ﺾﻤﺣ ﻦﻣ ﺕﺍﺮﻄﻘﺑ ﺾﻤﺤﻣﻭﻚ .  ﻥﺃ ﻆﺣﻼﻧﺎﻘﺘﻧﻻﺍﻝﺮﻤﺳﺃ ﻥﻮﻟ ﻭﺫ ﻝﻮﻠﺤﻣ ﻰﻟﺇ ﻥﻮﻠﻟﺍ ﻢﻳﺪﻋ ﻝﻮﻠﺤﻣ ﻦﻣ)ﺭﻮﻬﻇﻲﺋﺎﻨﺛﺩﻮﻴﻟﺍ(ﺐﻠﻄﺘﻳﺎﺘﻗﻭ  ﻞﻋﺎﻔﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻟﺩﺎﻌﻣ ﺐﺘﻜﻨﻟ: ﺎﻨﻳﺪﻟ:.
H
2
O
2
/ H
2
O
 ﺘﺗﻊﻣ ﻞﻋﺎﻔ 
I
2
/ I
-
 
و: 
H
2
O
2
+ 2 H
+
+ 2 e
-
= 2 H
2
O2 I
-
= I
2
+ 2 e
-
 H
2
O
2
+ 2 H
+
+ 2 I
-
 
=
I
2
+ 2 H
2
O
III
((((^ ^ ^ ^ ::::
Facteurs cinétiques
 1.3(
ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺗ:
ﺙﺪﺤﻳ ﻲﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻋﺮﺴﻟﺍ ﺮﻴﻴﻐﺗ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺭﺩﺎﻗ ﻲﺋﺎﻳﺰﻴﻓ ﺭﺍﺪﻘﻣ ﻞﻛ ﻮﻫ ﻲﻛﺮﺤﻟﺍ ﻞﻣﺎﻌﻟﺍﺎﻬﺑ ﺗﻝﻮﺤ ﻲﺋﺎﻴﻤﻴﻛ .
 
2.3
(ﻲﺒﻳﺮﺠﺘﻟﺍ ﺯﺍﺮﺑﻹﺍ:
 ﻴﻟﺎﺴﻛﻭﻷﺍ ﺾﻤﺣ ﻊﻣ ﻡﻮﻴﺳﺎﺗﻮﺒﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﻐﻨﻣﺮﺑ ﻞﻋﺎﻔﺗ ﻴﻟﺎﺴﻛﻭﻷﺍ ﺾﻤﺣ ﻊﻣ ﻡﻮﻴﺳﺎﺗﻮﺒﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﻐﻨﻣﺮﺑ ﻞﻋﺎﻔﺗ ﻴﻟﺎﺴﻛﻭﻷﺍ ﺾﻤﺣ ﻊﻣ ﻡﻮﻴﺳﺎﺗﻮﺒﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﻐﻨﻣﺮﺑ ﻞﻋﺎﻔﺗ ﻴﻟﺎﺴﻛﻭﻷﺍ ﺾﻤﺣ ﻊﻣ ﻡﻮﻴﺳﺎﺗﻮﺒﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻨﻐﻨﻣﺮﺑ ﻞﻋﺎﻔﺗﻚ ﻚﻚ ﻚ ﻲﻀﻤﺣ ﻂﺳﻭ ﻲﻓﻲﻀﻤﺣ ﻂﺳﻭ ﻲﻓﻲﻀﻤﺣ ﻂﺳﻭ ﻲﻓﻲﻀﻤﺣ ﻂﺳﻭ ﻲﻓ::::ﺓﺭﺍﺮﺤﻟﺍ ﺔﺟﺭﺩ ﺮﻴﺛﺄﺗ
 
ذ.لاا 
www.ibnalkhatib2.canalblog.com
ﺕﺎﻨﻐﻨﻣﺮﺒﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻧﻮﻳﺃ ﻞﻋﺎﻔﺘﺗ
MnO
4-
 
)ﺎﻴﺠﺴﻔﻨﺑ ﺎﻧﻮﻟ ﺬﺨﺘﻳ ﻲﺋﺎﻤﻟﺍ ﺎﻬﻟﻮﻠﺤﻣ(ﻚﻴﻟﺎﺴﻛﻭﻷﺍ ﺾﻤﺣ ﻊﻣ
H
2
C
2
O
4
 ﻥﻮﻠﻟﺍ ﻢﻳﺪﻌﻟﺍ.  ﺘﺧﺍ ﻲﺑﻮﺒﻧﺃ ﻲﻓ ﻲﻠﻋﺎﻔﺘﻟﺍ ﻂﻴﻠﺨﻟﺍ ﻉﺯﻮﻧﺪﻨﻋ ﻢﻳﺮﻣ ﻡﺎﻤﺣ ﻲﻓ ﻝﻭﻷﺍ ﻊﻀﻧ ﺭﺎﺒ 
20°C
ﺪﻨﻋ ﻢﻳﺮﻣ ﻡﺎﻤﺣ ﻲﻓ ﺮﺧﻵﺍ ﻭ
40°C
ﺔﺘﺴﻟﺍ ﺭﻮﺼﻟﺍ ﻞﺜﻤﺗﻭﻦﻣﺰﻟﺍ ﻝﻼﺧ ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻤﻟﺍ ﺭﻮﻄﺗ. 
3
.
3
(ﻞﻋﺎﻔﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻟﺩﺎﻌﻣ:
MnO
4-(aq)
+ 8 H
+(aq)
+ 5 e
-
= Mn
2+(aq)
+ 4 H
2
O
(l)
 H
2
C
2
O
4(aq)
= 2 CO
2(aq)
+2 H
+(aq)
+ 2 e
-
 2 MnO
4-(aq)
+ 5 H
2
C
2
O
4(aq)
+ 6 H
+(aq)
= 2 Mn
2+(aq)
+ 10 CO
2(aq)
+ 8 H
2
O
(l)
 
4.3(
ﺝﺎﺘﻨﺘﺳﺍ:
ﺎﻘﺘﻧﻻﺍ ﻥﺎﻛ ﺎﻤﻠﻛ ﺮﺒﻛﺃ ﻲﻠﻋﺎﻔﺘﻟﺍ ﻂﻴﻠﺨﻟﺍ ﺓﺭﺍﺮﺣ ﺔﺟﺭﺩ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ ﺎﻤﻠﻛ ﻝﺲﻜﻌﻟﺍﻭ ﺎﻌﻳﺮﺳ ﺞﺗﺍﻮﻨﻟﺍ ﻰﻟﺇﺢﻴﺤﺻ 
ﻡﻮﻳﺩﻮﺼﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺘﻳﺮﺒﻛﻮﻴﺛ ﻞﻋﺎﻔﺗﻡﻮﻳﺩﻮﺼﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺘﻳﺮﺒﻛﻮﻴﺛ ﻞﻋﺎﻔﺗﻡﻮﻳﺩﻮﺼﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺘﻳﺮﺒﻛﻮﻴﺛ ﻞﻋﺎﻔﺗﻡﻮﻳﺩﻮﺼﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺘﻳﺮﺒﻛﻮﻴﺛ ﻞﻋﺎﻔﺗﻚﻴﺘﻳﺮﺒﻜﻟﺍ ﺾﻤﺣ ﻊﻣﻚﻴﺘﻳﺮﺒﻜﻟﺍ ﺾﻤﺣ ﻊﻣﻚﻴﺘﻳﺮﺒﻜﻟﺍ ﺾﻤﺣ ﻊﻣﻚﻴﺘﻳﺮﺒﻜﻟﺍ ﺾﻤﺣ ﻊﻣ::::
 ﺋﺪﺒﻟﺍ ﺰﻴﻛﺮﺘﻟﺍ ﺮﻴﺛﺄﺗﺕﻼﻋﺎﻔﺘﻤﻠﻟ ﻲ 
 
1
....ﻲﻓﻲﻓﻲﻓﻲﻓﺱﺄﻛ 
1
 
ﺝﺰﻤﻧ:
20ml
ﻩﺰﻴﻛﺮﺗ ﻡﻮﻳﺩﻮﺼﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺘﻳﺮﺒﻛﻮﻴﺛ ﻦﻣ
-2
mol.l
-1
C
1
= 5.10
 ﻭﻭﻭﻭ
20ml
ﺰﻴﻛﺮﺗ ﻚﻳﺭﺪﻳﺭﻮﻠﻜﻟﺍ ﺾﻤﺣ ﻦﻣ
C
2
= 0,1mol. l
-1
 
2
.....ﺱﺄﻛ ﻲﻓ
2
 ﺝﺰﻤﻧ::::
20ml
ﻩﺰﻴﻛﺮﺗ ﻡﻮﻳﺩﻮﺼﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺘﻳﺮﺒﻛﻮﻴﺛ ﻦﻣ
C
1
= 0,1mol. l
-1
 

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