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Table Of Contents

1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Road Safety in Malaysia
1.3 The Problem Statement
1.4 The Professional Significance of the Study
1.5 Overview of the Methodology
1.6 Delimitations
2.1 Human Factors and the Motor Vehicle Safety Problem in Malaysia
2.1.1 Roadway Crashes in Malaysia and Public Perceptions of Causality
2.1.2 Studies of Causal Factors in Malaysian Roadway Crashes
2.2 The Professional Background
Challenge
2.2.2 The Emergence of Traffic Psychology as a Scientific Discipline
2.2.2.1 An Applied Perspective
2.2.2.2 A Multidisciplinary Approach
2.3 Theories of Driving Behaviour
2.3.1 Concepts, Theories and Models
2.3.2 Traffic Psychology: Slow Progress in Theory-Building
2.3.3 The Individual Differences Approach
2.3.3.1 Accident Proneness
2.3.3.2 Differential Accident Involvement
2.3.4 Risk Theories
2.3.4.1 Risk Homeostasis Theory (RHT)
2.3.4.2 Zero Risk Theory
2.3.5 Hierarchical Theories of Driver Adaptation
2.3.6 Task Capability Interface (TCI) Theory
2.3.7 Attitude-behaviour Theories
2.3.6.1 Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)
2.3.7.2 Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)
2.4 Descriptive Models of Driver Behaviour
2.4.1 Statistical Models
2.4.2 Process Models
2.4.2.1 The Haddon Matrix
2.5 Distal Variables in the Present Study
2.5.1 Demographic Variables
2.5.1.1 Age
2.5.1.3 Ethnicity
2.5.2 Driver Characteristics
2.5.2.1 Experience
2.5.2.2 Driving Frequency and Traffic Exposure
2.5.3 Psychological Variables
2.5.3.1 Locus of Control
2.5.3.1.1 Unidimensional and Multidimensional Constructs
2.5.3.1.2 Locus of Control and Driving Behaviour
2.5.3.1.3 Locus of Control and Ethnicity
2.5.3.2 Hopelessness
2.5.3.3 Aggression
2.6 Proximal Variables in the Present Research
2.6.1 Type A Behaviour Pattern and Motor Vehicle Crashes
3.1 Conceptualisation and the Research Framework
3.2 Definition of the Variables
3.2.1 Driver Characteristics: Driver Experience and Driving Frequency
3.2.2 Demographic Variables: Age, Gender and Ethnicity
3.2.3 Locus of Control
3.2.4 Hopelessness
3.2.5 Aggression
3.2.6 Hostile Automatic Thoughts
3.2.7 Behaviour in Traffic (BIT)
3.2.8 Crash Occurrence
3.2.9 Injury Occurrence
3.3 Research Design of the Study
3.3.1 Study 1A
3.3.2 Study 1B
3.3.3 Study 1C
3.3.4 Study 2
3.3.5 Study 3
3.4 Formulation of Hypotheses
3.5 Methods of Data Collection and Analysis
3.5.1 The Sample
3.5.2 Research Instruments
3.5.2.1 Behaviour in Traffic (BIT) Scale
3.5.2.2 Levenson Locus of Control Scale
3.5.2.3 Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS)
3.5.2.4 Aggression Questionnaire (AQ)
3.5.2.5 Hostile Automatic Thoughts (HAT)
Table 3.4: The Three Subscales of the Hostile Automatic Thoughts (HAT) Scale
3.5.2.6 Personal Information Form (PIF)
3.6 Procedure
3.6.1 Studies 1 and 2
3.6.2 Study 3
3.7 Analysis of the Data
3.7.1 Independent-sample t-tests
3.7.2 One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)
3.7.5 Multiple Regression Analysis
3.7.6 Logistic Regression Analysis
3.7.7 Structural Equation Modelling
3.7.7.2 Degrees of freedom (df)
3.7.7.4 Normed Fit Index (NFI)
3.7.7.6 Adjusted Goodness-of-Fit Index (AGFI)
3.7.7.7 Expected Cross-Validation Index (ECVI)
3.7.7.8 Parsimony Goodness-of-Fit Index (PGFI)
3.7.8 Kolmogorov-Smirnov One-Sample Test
3.7.9 Skewness and Kurtosis
4.1 Description of the Samples
4.1.1 Age, Gender and Ethnicity
4.1.2 Geographic Distribution of Samples in Study 1
4.1.3 Geographic Distribution of the Sample in Study 2
4.1.4 Geographic Distribution of the Sample in Study 3
4.2 Reliability and Validity
4.2.1 Reliability Test Results: Cronbach’s Alpha
4.2.2 Parallel-Form Reliability
4.2.3 Validity Test Results
4.2.3.1 Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the BIT Scale
4.2.3.3 Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the AQ Scale
4.2.3.4 Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the HAT Scale
4.3 Normality, Skewness and Kurtosis
4.4 Crash and Injury Occurrence Data
4.5.2 Results of Study 2
4.5.3 Results of Study 3
4.6 Hypothesis Testing
4.6.4 Hypothesis 4: Demographic Variables Influence Locus of Control
4.6.5 Hypothesis 5: Demographic Variables Influence Hopelessness
4.6.6 Hypothesis 6: Locus of Control Influences Hopelessness
4.6.7 Hypothesis 7: Hopelessness Influences Behaviour in Traffic
4.6.8 Hypothesis 8: Locus of Control Influences Behaviour in Traffic
4.6.10 Hypothesis 10: Demographic Factors Influence Aggression
Table 4.30: Direct Effects of Gender on AQ Total and Subscale Scores
Table 4.31: Direct Effects of Ethnicity on AQ Total and Subscale Factors
4.6.11 Hypothesis 11: Aggression Influences Behaviour in Traffic
Aggression and Behaviour in Traffic
4.6.12.1 Internality as a Moderator
4.6.16 Summary of Hypothesis Testing
Modelling (LISREL Analysis)
4.7.1 Study 1C
4.7.2 Study 2
4.8 Testing Mediational Relationships Using SPSS
Crash Outcome
outcomes
Drivers
4.9.1 Differences between Automobile Drivers and Motorcycle Drivers
4.9.2 Differences between Automobile Drivers and Taxicab Drivers
4.9.3 Differences between Motorcycle Drivers and Taxicab Drivers
Unsafe Driving
5.2 Hopelessness
5.3 Locus of Control
5.3.2 Locus of Control and Ethnicity: Indian-Malaysian Drivers
5.4 Aggression
Modelling (SEM)
5.5.1 Advantages of Using SEM
5.5.2 Goodness of Fit
5.5.3 Best Fit or Best Model
5.5.4 Testing the Contextual Mediated Models Using SEM
5.5.4.1 Study 1C: Automobile Drivers
5.5.4.2 Study 2: Motorcyclists
5.5.4.3 Study 3: Taxicab Drivers
5.5.5 What Can be Learned from Testing Contextual Models with SEM?
5.6 Limitations of the Study and Methodological Considerations
5.6.1 Generalisabilty of Findings
Table 5.2: Distribution of National Population and Sampled Participants by State
5.6.2 Use of self-report methods
5.6.3 Timeframe for Data Collection
5.6.4 Measurement of Driving Frequency
5.7 Implications and Areas for Further Study
5.7.1 Theory vs. Models in Traffic Psychology
5.7.2 Factors in Behavioural Adaptation (BA)
5.7.3 Driver Selection, Training and Rehabilitation
5.7.4 Preventive Measures: “The Three E’s”
5.7.4.1 Generating and classifying crash prevention interventions
REFERENCES
GLOSSARY
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Ph.d Tesis on SEM by alan tez

Ph.d Tesis on SEM by alan tez

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Published by: Hjmari Reimei on Mar 09, 2011
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12/19/2012

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