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Dispersion Modeling of Carbonyl Sulfide Emissions from a Natural Gas Compressor Station near Lake Arlington

Dispersion Modeling of Carbonyl Sulfide Emissions from a Natural Gas Compressor Station near Lake Arlington

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Published by Sharon Wilson
Dispersion Modeling of Carbonyl Sulfide Emissions from a Natural Gas Compressor Station near Lake Arlington
Dispersion Modeling of Carbonyl Sulfide Emissions from a Natural Gas Compressor Station near Lake Arlington

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Published by: Sharon Wilson on Mar 09, 2011
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DRAFT 3/7/11
Dispersion Modeling of Carbonyl Sulfide Emissions from a NaturalGas Compressor Station near Lake Arlington
Melanie Sattler, Ph.D., P.E.for Fort Worth League of NeighborhoodsMarch 2011
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DRAFT 3/7/11
INTRODUCTION
The objective of this project was to estimate concentrations of carbonyl sulfide surrounding anatural gas compressor station located near Lake Arlington (see Fig. 1), to determine whether thepotential exists for adverse impacts on human health. Although 2 1-hour ambient air sampleswere collected by Titan Engineering in June 2010 to assess the potential for health impacts, these2 samples did not represent a worst case in terms of human exposure.Concentrations of pollutants to which humans are exposed are functions of:1) Emission rate,2) Meteorology.If meteorological conditions are right for diluting pollutant concentrations, then humans will beexposed to low levels of pollutants. Such diluting conditions include high wind speeds andsignificant vertical mixing/turbulence. On the other hand, if meteorological conditions are rightfor concentrating pollutants, then humans will be exposed to high levels of pollutants. Suchconcentrating conditions include low wind speeds and stable atmospheric conditions.
Samplingfor 1-hour is not enough to assess the worst-case concentrations that humans might beexposed to
: unless the sampler is very lucky, the meteorological conditions during sampling willnot be worst case. The Titan Engineering report states that conditions during the 1-hour of sampling were normal (not worst-case).
In addition, sampling at 2 locations is not enough toassess the worst-case concentrations that humans might be exposed to
: unless the sampler isvery lucky, he/she will not happen to be sampling at the location where the highest concentrationoccurs.
In this project, 9480 hours of meteorological data (from June 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010)were processed through air quality dispersion modeling software to determine whatcarbonyl sulfide concentrations would be under a variety of meteorological conditions.
Inaddition, pollutant concentrations were estimated at
2220 receptor locations
surrounding thecompressor station to provide a more complete picture of how concentrations would vary as afunction of location.
The computer modeling results show that under meteorological conditionsthat concentrate pollutants, carbonyl sulfide concentrations surrounding the Lake Arlingtonexceed health impact levels, for distances as great as one mile.
METHODOLOGY - MEASUREMENTS
Titan Engineering, Inc., in a project conducted for the Barnett Shale Energy Education Council,collected 2 1-hour ambient air samples near the Lake Arlington compressor station for sulfur analysis. Although additional samples were collected for analysis of volatile organic compoundsand formaldehyde, only these 2 samples at the Lake Arlington site (COFW 5) were analyzed for sulfur compounds. The 2 samples were collected in summa canisters on June 11, 2010 between2:15 and 3:15 p.m., at the following locations:
2
 
DRAFT 3/7/11
“Upwind Sources @ Boundary (Center)” (UTM coordinates 667,605 E and 3,622,549 N),termed Upwind Location in this report, and
“Downwind Sources @ Boundary (Center) (UTM coordinates 667,624 E and 3,622,695N), termed Downwind Location.The summa canister samples were analyzed by TestAmerica, Austin, TX, for 20 sulfur compounds. Results of the testing are available on-line atwww.bseec.orgin “Appendix G LabReports: Part 2 of 2.” Of the 20 sulfur compounds tested for, carbonyl sulfide and carbondisulfide were detected in the canister samples. Carbonyl sulfide concentrations were 130 and330 µg/m
3
at Locations 1 and 2, respectively. The 1-hour Texas Commission on EnvironmentalQuality (TCEQ) Effects Screening Level (ESL) for carbonyl sulfide is 135 µg/m
3
; one of thesample concentrations exceeded this level. 
METHODOLOGY - MODELING
Gaussian dispersion modeling is a widely used computer simulation method of estimatingatmospheric concentrations of air pollutants, given source emission rate information,meteorological data, and terrain data.
Dispersion modeling is required by the TexasCommission on Environmental Quality
as part of its permitting process for certain sources.Dispersion modeling can supplement field measurements of concentrations in order to provide amore complete picture of how concentrations vary as functions of time and space.
Software
.
 
The Gaussian dispersion model AERMOD was used to estimate pollutantconcentrations and impact areas. Modeling was conducted using AERMOD View (LakesEnvironmental Version 6.4.0).
Source Data
. Compressor stack heights, diameters, temperatures, and flow rates were takenfrom manufacturer information for the compressor engine models at the Lake Arlington site (4Caterpillar G3608 LE 2370 hp engines and 2 Waukesha 7044GSI 1680 hp engines).Dispersion models also require source emission rate information in mass/time. The Titan studydid not measure emissions directly from the compressor station stacks. Manufacturer emissionrate information was obtained for the compressor engine models at the Lake Arlington site fromCaterpillar and Waukesha. Unfortunately, the manufacturers do not test for sulfide compounds.In addition, the manufacturer emission rates are based on engines burning pipeline qualitynatural gas, which may have a different composition from gas burned by the Lake Arlingtoncompressors.Due to the lack of available emission rate information, a preliminary model run was used todetermine the emission rate from the compressor station (in g/sec) that replicated the ambient 1-hour concentrations measured on June 11, 2010, using the meteorological data for the 2:00 and3:00 p.m. hours, since sampling was conducted from 2:15-3:15. The preliminary model runassumed that all of the carbonyl sulfide measured in the canister came from the compressor station site. Given the close proximity between the compressor station site and the sampling site,this is not an unreasonable assumption. If direct measurements of carbonyl sulfide emissions
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