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Vision System for on Loom Fabric Inspection

Vision System for on Loom Fabric Inspection

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Published by: nagpal_aakash on Mar 09, 2011
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03/09/2011

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Supported under the AMTEX Cooperative Research and Development Agreement at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed byLockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-96OR22464.
V
ISION
S
YSTEM FOR
O
N
-L
OOM
F
ABRIC
I
NSPECTION
*
Hamed Sari-Sarraf and James S. Goddard, Jr.Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Corresponding Author:
Hamed Sari-Sarraf, Ph.D.Oak Ridge National LaboratoryBethel Valley RoadOak Ridge, Tennessee, 37831-6011Phone: 423-574-5542Fax: 423-574-6663E-mail: sarisarrafh@ornl.gov
 
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Abstract--
This paper describes a vision-basedfabric inspection system that accomplishes on-loom inspection of the fabric under constructionwith 100% coverage. The inspection system,which offers a scalable, open architecture, can bemanufactured at relatively low cost using off-the-shelf components. While synchronized to themotion of the loom, the developed system firstacquires very high-quality, vibration-free imagesof the fabric using either front or backlighting.Then the acquired images are subjected to a noveldefect segmentation algorithm, which is based onthe concepts of wavelet transform, image fusion,and the correlation dimension. The essence of thissegmentation algorithm is the localization of thoseevents (i.e., defects) in the input images that dis-rupt the global homogeneity of the backgroundtexture. The efficacy of this algorithm, as well asthe overall inspection system, has been testedthoroughly under realistic conditions. The systemwas used to acquire and to analyze more than3700 images of fabrics that were constructed withtwo different types of yarn. In each case, the per-formance of the system was evaluated as an oper-ator introduced defects from 26 categories intothe weaving process. The overall detection rate of the presented approach was found to be 89% witha localization accuracy of 0.2 in. (i.e., the mini-mum defect size) and a false alarm rate of 2.5%.Index Terms--
Textile Industry, Fabric Inspection,Computer Vision, Real-Time Systems, WaveletTransform, Defect Detection, Quality Assurance,Process Control
I. I
NTRODUCTION
Measurement of quality during the production of woven fabrics is highly important to the textileindustry in lowering costs and improving the finishedproduct. Presently, much of the fabric inspection isperformed manually by human inspectors and usingoff-line stations. Many defects are missed, and theinspection is inconsistent, with its outcome depend-ing on the training and the skill level of the person-nel. As a result, the textile industry has been movingtoward automated fabric inspection. An automatedfabric inspection system can provide consistentresults that correlate with the quality-control stan-dards of the textile industry. Up to this point, most if not all of such automated technologies have been off-line (or off-loom), inspecting large rolls of fabricafter they have been produced. To provide the mostprecise control of quality, however, the fabric mustbe monitored as it is constructed so that correctionscan be made immediately to minimize the quantity of poor-quality fabric. In addition, higher productionspeeds make the timely detection of defects moreimportant than ever.There are more than 50 identified categories of fabric (weaving) defects in the textile industry. It isinteresting to note that approximately 80% of thesedefects have a preferred orientation, either in thedirection of motion (i.e., warp direction) or perpen-dicular to it (i.e., pick direction). Many defects arecaused by machine malfunctions, while others aredue to faulty yarns. For air-jet looms, which are themost widely used, the predominant defects aremispicks (missing or broken pick yarns), end-outs(missing or broken warp yarns), and slubs (or waste).These looms, as well as other less widely usedlooms, may have machine faults that produce otherdefects, such as holes, oil spots, or dirt. Theseassorted defects can produce a wide range of visibleeffects on the finished fabric and render it off-quality.Warp or pick defects tend to be long and narrow,slubs can produce point defects, and moiré defectschange the apparent texture of the weaving pattern.Automation of fabric inspection has been a topicof considerable research. The inspection systems arepredominantly optically based and primarily useeither line-scan [1-3] or area [4] sensors for image
V
ISION
S
YSTEM FOR
O
N
-L
OOM
F
ABRIC
I
NSPECTION
Hamed Sari-Sarraf,
Member, IEEE 
, and James S. Goddard Jr.,
Member, IEEE Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Research supported under the AMTEX Cooperative Research and Development Agreement at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, man-aged by Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-96OR22464.
 
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acquisition. Complete real-time systems have beendeveloped that emphasize the high-performanceimage acquisition and computing hardware require-ments for discrete defect detection and classification[5,6]. Also widely reported are the image analysismethodologies, including those based on texturalmodels for defect detection [7,8], as well as neural orknowledge-based techniques for defect classification[9-11]. Real-time defect detection approaches usingthe wavelet transform and fuzzy inferencing havealso been described in [4,12].The fabric inspection system, which was devel-oped by the authors in early 1995 and is presentedhere, differs from existing systems in two crucialways. First, it is on-line or on-loom; and second, it isequipped with a novel defect segmentation tech-nique, which has been thoroughly tested under realis-tic conditions and found to have a high detectionrate, high accuracy, and a low rate of false alarms.The results of comparably extensive tests have yet tobe reported for the competing systems or for segmen-tation algorithms. The defect segmentation techniquereported in [12] is noteworthy, as it takes our idea of preprocessing the fabric images using the wavelettransform to the next logical step by suggesting anoptimal derivation of the wavelet bases. However,where we use the wavelet transform only as a prepro-cessing tool, this approach uses it as the primarymeans for defect detection.In what follows, we describe the proposed fabricinspection system in terms of its image acquisitionsubsystem and its defect segmentation algorithm.The results of an extensive test for evaluating the per-formance of this system have also been included.
II. F
ABRIC
I
MAGE
A
CQUISITION
On-loom fabric image acquisition presents severalchallenges to obtaining high-quality, high-resolutionimages. One of these challenges is the isolation of the mounting components from the considerablevibration that is produced during loom operation.Another is the irregular forward motion of the fabricamong the loom rollers after it is woven. Still anotheris the challenge of designing an inspection systemwhose cost-effectiveness can justify its use on many,if not all, of the looms in a manufacturing mill.As described in the following sections, each of these challenges has been addressed and met indeveloping our on-loom image acquisition sub-system.
A. Hardware Description
The image acquisition subsystem is implementedwith standard components on a low-cost personalcomputer. These components, shown in Fig. 1, con-sist of a 4096-element, line-scan camera, which issynchronized to the moving fabric by means of anincremental encoder; a source of illumination forbacklighting the fabric; a DSP-based image acquisi-tion and processing card with a single TI 320C40chip; and a personal computer. The only custom-made component in this subsystem is the camera-encoder interface, which is used to extract the trueforward movement of the fabric from the highlyoscillatory motion of the loom and to enable accurateimage-line triggering for the line-scan camera. Thesecomponents are used to acquire high-resolution,vibration-free images of the fabric under construc-tion and to store them on the on-board memory of theacquisition card. The software running on the DSPboard controls the image acquisition process andaccumulates a two-dimensional (2-D) image suitablefor the ensuing analysis (i.e., defect segmentation).
Personal ComputerDisplay BoardEthernetDSP-Based Board
Electronic Map
DisplayCamera-EncoderInterfaceFabricIllumination
Line-Scan Camera
EncoderFig. 1. The hardware components used in the inspec-tion system.

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