Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
MAIN Colloids

MAIN Colloids

Ratings: (0)|Views: 119 |Likes:
Published by mrjwd1

More info:

Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: mrjwd1 on Mar 09, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

08/27/2012

pdf

text

original

 
Colloids
A
colloid
is a substance microscopically dispersed evenly throughout another substance.A colloidal system consists of two separate phases: a
dispersed phase
(or 
internal phase
) and a
continuousphase
(or 
dispersion medium
). A colloidal system may besolid,liquid, or gaseous. The dispersed-phase particles have a diameter of between approximately 5 and 200nanometers.
[2]
Such particles arenormally invisible in an opticalmicroscope, though their presence can be confirmed with the use of anultramicroscopeor  anelectron microscope.Homogeneousmixtures with a dispersed phase in this size range may be called
colloidal aerosols
,
colloidal emulsions
,
colloidal foams
,
colloidal dispersions
, or 
hydrosols
. The dispersed-phase particles or droplets are affected largely by thesurface chemistrypresent in the colloid.Some colloids are translucent because of theTyndall effect, which is the scattering of light by particles in the colloid.Other colloids may be opaque or have a slight color 
This field of study was introduced in 1861 by Scottish scientist Thomas Graham.
Characteristic features
>> Solute doesnt completely dissolve in solvent but not visible to the naked eye.>> Will Scatter light  gives an opaque , turbid appearance>> Exhibits characteristics of a molecular solution (Brownian motion, capacity for diffusion)>> Size 1nm - 0.5nm
C
lassification of colloids
C
olloids can be classified as follows:
 
Medium / PhasesDispersed phase
Gas Liquid Solid
Cont
i
n
u
o
usmedium
Gas
NONE
 (All gases are mutuallymiscible)
Liquidaer
o
s
ol
 Examples:fog,mist,hair sprays 
 
Sol
id aer
o
s
ol
 Examples:smoke,cloud,air  particulates 
 
Liquid
Fo
am
 Example:whipped cream,Shaving
 
cream 
Emu
l
si
on
 Examples:milk ,mayonnaise,hand
 
cream 
Sol
 Examples:pigmented
 
ink ,blood  Solid
Sol
id f 
o
am
 Examples:aerogel,styrofoam,pumice 
 
Ge
l
 Examples:agar ,gelatin,jelly,opal 
 
Sol
id s
ol
 Example:cranberry glass 
 
->
Colloids can also be classified on the basis of interactionbetween Dispersed phase (DP) & Dispersion medium (DM)
a) Lyophillic colloids / Hydrophilic colloids :
(i) Strong affinity is present between particles of DP & DM.(ii) It¶s reversible because DP & DM can be separated.(iii) It¶s stable & don¶t get easily precipitated.(iv)When DM is water , it¶s called Hydrophilic.
 
b) Lyophobic colloids / Hydrophobic colloids :
(i) No or very low affinity is present between particles of DP & DM.(ii) Its irreversible because DP & DM cant be separated.(iii) Its very less stable & has tendency to get precipitated outeasily.(iv)When DM is water , its called Hydrophobic.-> Colloids can be classified on the basis of size of colloidal particle :Multimolecular colloids - Colloidal particle is aggregate of small atom or molecule in which particles are held by van der Waalsforce. Macromolecular colloids - Colloidal particles is big molecule or atom like colloidal solution of polymers. This type of colloidalsystem is very stable. No need of aggregation or subtraction.
Hydrocolloids
A
hy
drocolloid
is defined as a colloid system wherein the colloid particles are dispersed inwater . A hydrocolloid hascolloid particles spread throughout water, and depending on the quantity of water available that can take place in differentstates, e.g.,gelor sol(liquid). Hydrocolloids can be either irreversible(single-state) or reversible. For example,agar , a reversible hydrocolloid of seaweedextract, can exist in a gel and sol state, and alternate between states with the additionor elimination of heat.
PROPERTIES
The main characteristic properties of colloidal solutions are as follows.
 
(1)
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
 
(i)
HETEROGENEOUS NATURE:
C
olloidal sols are heterogeneousin nature. They consists of two phases; the dispersedphase and the dispersion medium.(ii)STABLE NATURE
:
The colloidal solutions are quite stable. Their particles are in a state of motion and do not settledown at the bottom of the container.
 
 
(iii)FILTERABILITY
:
 
C
olloidal particles are readily passed through the ordinary filter papers. However they can beretained by special filters known as ultrafilters (parchment paper).
(2)
COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES
 
(i) Due to formation of associated molecules, observed values of colligative properties like relative decrease in vapour pressure, elevation in boiling point, depression in freezing point, osmotic pressure are smaller than expected.(ii) For a given colloidal sol the number of particles will be very small as compared to the true solution.
 
(3)
M
ECHANICAL PROPERTIES
 
(i)
B
ROWNIAN
M
OVE
M
ENT
 
(a)
RO
B
ERT
B
ROWN,
a botanist discovered in 1827that the
p
ollen
g
rains
 
suspended in water do not remain atrest but move about continuously and randomly in all directions.
 
(b) Later on, it was observed that the colloidal particles are moving at random in a
z
i
g ±
z
a
g
motion. This type of motion is called
B
ROWNIAN
M
OVE
M
ENT.
 
(c) The molecules of the dispersion medium are constantly colloiding with the particles of the dispersed phase. Itwas stated by
W
iener 
 
in 1863that the impacts of the dispersion medium particles are unequal, thus causing a zig-zagmotion of the dispersed phase particles.
 
(d) The Brownian movement explains the force of gravity acting on colloidal particles. This helps in providingstability to colloidal sols by not allowing them to settle down.
 
(
ii)
DIFFUSION :
 
The sol particles diffuse from higher concentration to lower concentration region. However, due to bigger size, they diffuse at a lesser speed.
 
(iii)
SEDI
M
ENTATION :
The colloidal particles settle down under the influence of gravity at a very slow rate. Thisphenomenon is used for determining the molecular mass of the macromolecules.
 
(4)
OPTICAL PROPERTIES: TYNDALL EFFECT
 
(i) When light passes through a sol, its path becomes visible because of scattering of light by particles. It is called
TYNDALL EFFECT.
This phenomenon was studied for the first time by
TYNDALL.
The illuminated path of the beam iscalled
TYNDALL CONE.
(ii) The intensity of the scattered light depends on the difference between the refractive indices of the dispersed phaseand the dispersion medium.
 
(iii) In lyophobic colloids, the difference is appreciable and, therefore, the Tyndall effect is well - defined. But in lyophilicsols, the difference is very small and the Tyndall effect is very weak.
 
(iv) The Tyndall effect confirms the
HETEROGENEOUS NATURE OF COLLOIDAL SOLUTION.
 
(v) The Tyndall effect has also been observed by an instrument called
ULTRA-
M
ICROSCOPE.
(5)
ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
(i)
ELECTROPHORESIS
 
(a) The phenomenon of movement of colloidal particles under an applied electric field is called
ELECTROPHORESIS.
(b) If the particles accumulate near the negative electrode, the charge on the particles is
POSITIVE.
(c) On the other hand, if the sol particles accumulate near the positive electrode, the charge on the particles is
NEGATIVE.
 
(d) The apparatus consists of a U-tube with two Pt-electrodes in each limb.
 

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->