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Rise of Venice_revision_factors

Rise of Venice_revision_factors

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1
REVISION: RISE OF VENICE
EXAMPLES OF POSSIBLE SEQs
PARAGRAPH ONE PARAGRAPH TWO PARAGRAPH 3
1.
 
To what extent was the success of Venice from the 9
th
C onwards due tocapable leadership? Explain your answer. (GCE O 2002)2.
 
Was its political system more a help thana hindrance to Venice? Explain your answer. (GCE O 2005)3.
 
To what extent was its geographicallocation responsible for the rise of Venice? Expln your ans. (GCE O 2007)4.
 
To what extent was the rise of Venicedue to political factors? Explain your answer.5.
 
Here are 3 reasons for the rise of Venice:
 
System of government
 
Attitude & qualities of Venetians
 
Strategic geographical locationWhich one of these is the most important? Explain your answer 
 6. How far were the qualities and skills of the Venetians an important reason for therise of Venice? Explain your answer.7. To what extent was its ship-buildingindustry important for Venice in over-coming competition from their trade rivals in Europe? Explain your ans.8. How far did adapting to maritimeadvances bring Venice its economicprosperity? Explain your answer.
CONTRIBUTING FACTORS
1.
 
FACTOR:
CAPABLE LEADERS
 Capable leaders who were farsighted contributed to growth and development of Venice between the 9
th
 and 15
th
centuries.
For example
, at a time when Venice was still weak, Doge Pietro II Orseolo maintainedfriendship with the Byzantine emperor and established relations with the Germanic kings.
This helpedVenice to protect her independence and also to obtain favourable trading terms.
He also createdtrade links with the Muslim states in North Africa at a time when Europe was hostile to Muslims.
Thisenabled Venice to become the middleman in the trade between the Middle East and Europe.
Healso brought the pirates under control and thus
made it safer for Venetian trading ships to sail in theAdriatic Sea.
Later, when Venice became stronger, other Doges
helped to expand Venetian tradethrough territorial conquests. Doge Enrico Dandolo overthrew the Byzantine Emperor and captured thecapital Constantinople and other territories in the Mediterranean region.
These conquests gave Venicecontrol over important trade routes. They were able to set up military outposts along the traderoutes, gain the best trading terms for Venice and handle trade competition more effectively. This
marked the beginning of Venice’s growth as a m
aritime empire.
a. State 3 things Doge Pietro II Orseolo did that contributed tothe growth and development of Venice?b. How did his 3 actions benefit Venice?c. How did Doge Enrico Dandolohelp to expand Venetian trade?d. How did territorial conquestsbenefit Venice?
 
2
2.
 
FACTOR:
REFORMS IN THE GOVERNMENT
The reforms that were introduced in the government to meet the demands of the growing city-state alsocontributed to the rise of Venice. E.g., in the 12
th
century, the Great Council was created. It was madeup of men from the most influential families in Venice and had multiple roles including the election of capable members to all councils and the passing of laws. As Venice grew, more committees werecreated to specialize in specific duties of government. E.g., in response to the expansion of trade andfrequent contact with foreign countries, the Senate was created to oversee foreign relations, commerceand the operations of Venetian fleet. As the structure of the government grew more complex, there was aneed for a system of checks and balances to ensure that there were no corrupt practices or abuse of power. Thus, the Council of Ten was formed to deal with critical matters such as internal security of thestate. It could even limit the power of the Doge. The process of electing officials through balloting andstrict election rules prevented any individual or family from dominating the government. It also ensured allpositions of responsibility in the government were filled up.
The reforms gave Venice political stabilityand a system of government made up capable and talented officials who were dedicated toserving the country by introducing policies that helped Venice to develop into a successful city-state and maritime power. The specialization of duties ensured the various roles of governmentwere carried out efficiently. With this system of government also, the resources of the city weresafeguarded to benefit the country.
3.
 
FACTOR:
EFFECTIVE SYSTEM OF MANAGING VOYAGES
 An important policy th
at contributed greatly to Venice’s success as a trading centre was an effective
system of managing voyages. The Senate organized and closely monitored the schedule of voyages.They put traders in groups and arranged for them to travel in convoys. The system also made full use of maritime advances.
As a result, Venice was able to handle a rapid expansion of trade andterritorial control
.
The system also enabled traders to protect themselves better from pirates, and,offer a larger variety of goods which they could sell at fixed prices and thus earn more profits.The efficiency of this system enabled Venice to expand its trade into many regions and beat their trade competitors who were less organized.
4.
 
FACTOR:
VENETIAN ATTITUDE TOWARDS TRADE / QUALITIES AND SKILLS OFVENETIANS
 The Venetians had skills and qualities that also contributed to the rise of Venice. They were skilleddiplomats who were able to obtain favourable trading terms such as low tax rates. They also had anenterprising spirit as they travelled to unknown lands to discover new trade routes, suppliers and markets.They were able to establish good relations with countries in the Far East, expand their trade, and bring inhighly-prized goods like spices from the East.
Therefore, they stayed ahead of their trade competitorsin Europe such as Genoa. The wealth created by their trade with Asia turned Venice into one of the greatest cities in Europe
. Foreign traders travelled to Venice and even established permanenttrading posts in there. Venetians also had extensive knowledge of shipbuilding. They designed and builtsuperior ships called galleys that were propelled by both oars and sail. Their Great Galley was acombination of a merchant and war vessel. All these gave them many benefits, especially after their shipbuilding industry was centralized at the Arsenal in 1100 and became the backbone of their maritimeindustry and power.
As a result, Venetian traders could sail further and more frequently at any timeof the year, carry more goods, and deter pirates from attacking them. These benefits helpedVenice have an edge over their competitors and led to the expansion of trade and territorialcontrol for Venice.
e. Why were reforms introduced in the Venetian government?f. What was the Great Council?g. Why was the Senate created and what were its functions?h. Why did they need a systemof checks and balances?i. What were functions of theCouncil of Ten?j. Why did Venice introduceballoting and strict rules in theelection process?k. What positive impact did all thereforms in government have onVenice?l. How did the Venetiansmanage their trading voyages?m. How did this system of managing voyages benefit Venice?n. How did the Venetiandiplomatic skills benefit Venice?o. How did the Venetianenterprising spirit benefit Venice?
p. How did Venetian’s extensive
knowledge of shipbuilding benefit Venice?
 
3
5.
 
FACTOR:
INNOVATION IN MARITIME TECHNOLOGY
Innovation in maritime technology in the 13
th
C also contributed to the rise of Venice. For example,nautical charts which had information about distance, important landmarks and ports enabled Venetian
traders to plan their journey more accurately. Another example is the mariner’
s compass which ensuredthat their ships stayed on course.
These innovations made travel in winter possible. The Venetiansoptimized the use of these innovations and so they were able to dominate trade in theMediterranean Sea throughout the year.6.
 
FACTOR:
STRATEGIC GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION
Venice’s strategic geographical location was important in its rise to become a great maritime empire and
trading centre. Venice was strategically located at the northern tip of the Adriatic Sea. They were at theintersection between Europe and the Middle East. This gave them an advantage over their political andtrade competitors in the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, especially Genoa which was located further inland. From their location, Venetian traders have easier access to both the overland and sea routes togo to Arabian ports to buy Middle Eastern goods which they later sold at very high prices to Europeanstates.
In addition
, being only 3 km away from the Italian mainland, the early Venetians gained access tothe mainland and its forested areas to obtain wood for shipbuilding and trading with Middle Eastern states
in return for gold, spices and incense. Venice’s strategic location, together with other factors –
such astheir diplomatic skills at negotiating trade agreements, their enterprising spirit, their knowledge of shipbuilding, their strong navy, their effective system of managing voyages, and the way they fullycapitalized on new maritime technology
 
all enabled Venice to provide a larger quantity and greater variety of goods from the East. Central and Southern Europe had no choice but to rely on Venicefor Eastern goods. It brought great riches to Venice which grew from strength to strength. After many wars with Genoa, Venice was able to defeat it in the 14
th
C. From then onwards, Venicedominated the Mediterranean Sea and gained monopoly of the Mediterranean region whichbrought them greater international trade.7.
 
FACTOR:
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES / INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
The development of manu
facturing industries also contributed to Venice’s rise.
With the expansion of trade, Venetians grew richer and began to demand for luxury goods such as glassware, candles andscented soap. As a result, industries manufacturing these goods grew and thrived in Venice. The printing
industry also blossomed in Venice in order to serve the large reading public there. Venice’s extensive
trade connections made it easy to find buyers for the goods and obtain supplies such as paper.
The newindustries created more jobs which attracted many skilled craftsmen from other parts of Europewho settled down and worked in Venice. They also generated more wealth for Venice.
8.
 
FACTOR:
INNOVATIVE PRACTICES
 Another factor which contributed to the success of Venice were the innovative practices that theVenetians developed and introduced. For example, they introduced double-entry book-keeping thathelped traders keep track of the amount of goods and details of their trading transactions. They alsointroduced Giro banking which made it convenient for traders to do business since they did not have tocarry large amounts of money.
These innovative practices helped to facilitate trade. Foreign traderswere attracted to Venice because of the convenient and efficient services available there.
 
q. Describe two innovation inmaritime technology in the 13
th
 century.r. Explain how these innovationsbenefited Venice.
s. Describe Venice’s strategic 
geographical location.t. How did this strategic locationenable Venice to have an edgeover its competitors?u. Apart from its strategic location, what other factorsenabled Venice to beat itscompetitors?v. What brought about thedevelopment of manufacturingindustries in Venice?w. Give examples of themanufacturing industries that thrived in Venice.x. How did industrial development contribute to
Venice’s rise?
 y. Describe two innovativepractices developed and introduced by Venetians.z. How did these innovativepractices contribute to thesuccess of Venice?

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