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SEMANTIKA_ENGLESKOGA_JEZIKA

SEMANTIKA_ENGLESKOGA_JEZIKA

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Published by: marielamart on Mar 09, 2011
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mnti
S E M A N T I K A E N G L E S K O G A J E Z I K A
m e n t a l i s m 
implies that phenomena within language have a mental basis, which meansthat language is not seen exclusively as an abstract system existing on its own
a n t i – m e n t a l i s m 
implies that language is seen as a structure which is in no way relatedto any kind of psychological attributes of the human being
t h e o r i e s 
have an explanatory function; they systemise the data according to the generalprinciples; on the basis of this systematisation things become clearer 
m e t h o d o l o g y 
is a set of methods by means of which the postulates of the theory are,hopefully, proven
l i n g u i s t i c c o n t e x t 
: immediate syntagmatic environment in which a linguisticelement can appear (+ non-linguistic context + context of situation)
l i n g u i s t i c s 
: the scientific study of language (language is seen as an abstract system)
1916,
Saussure’s
Course on General Linguistics
” = the beginning of linguistics as a science,and the beginning of structural linguistics
it is the scientific study of language which aims at explaining how language functions
language is seen as a
unique system/structure
whose basic principles are identified, explainedand can then be applied to all languages
he distinguished between
synchronic
and
diachronic
research
he distinguished between
langue’
,
parole’
and ‘
langage’
(the totality of the linguisticphenomena)
he started distinguishing between the psychological and sociological reality of language
linguistic sign
is comprised of form and content (signifié and signifiant)
paradigmatic
and
syntagmatic
relations
o
syntagmatic– linear; they are combinatory sequences determined by the two sets of rules: those that determine how sequence can appear, and those that are deliminatedby possible choices
o
paradigmatic– all the possibilities within language that can be interchanged on thesyntagmatic level
o
they pose a unity, i.e. function in unison
structuralism
developed in two major mainstreams
o
European 
o
American 
based on the psychological theory of behaviourism
very radical kind of anti-mentalism
basic
levels of linguistic analysis
from the traditional point of view (i.e. what linguistics dealswith):
o
phonology
o
morphology
o
syntax
o
lexicology
o
semantics
(studies the structure above individual words/phrases)
impact on other humanities
: they could function as a legitimate scientific disciplines1
 
s e m i o t i c s 
: the scientific study of signs
Ogden and Richards 
:
o
semioticians intrigued by meaning in natural languages
o
The Meaning of Meaning 
” (1923): came up with 22 definitions of meaning
o
something radical should be done, through
analytical rigour
– meaning must havesome kind of structure; they say that analytical rigour is the only way out within anylinguistic discipline that deals with meaning
o
knowledge of the language and of the world depends on a cultural background andon the direction of the development of a language
eng.:
trot > canter > gallop =
hrv.:
kas
 
> ? > galop
=>
lexical gap
 
galop je posuđenica iz engleskog jer to nije bila primarna uloga konja uHrvatskoj
o
triangle
symbolis any item of language
reference(‘thought’) is a mentalvision that we get when someonesays something
referentis a real word entity
meaning can be seen as aprocess; it is not an entity
there is an arbitrary relationbetween a symbol and a referentREFERENCESYMBOL REFERENT
Ullmann
SENSEknowledge knowledgeof of language the worldNAME THING
Pierce 
LEXICAL CONCEPTLEXEME DENOTATUM
the basic
f u n c t i o n s o f l a n g u a g e
(Leech)
o
informational 
based on the assumption that the primary reason is to conveyinformation
connected with conceptual meaning
o
expressive 
use of language for expressing one’s attitudes and feelings
connected with affective meaning
o
directive 
we aim to influence the behaviour and attitudes of others (e.g. demandsand requests)
speech acts
: we act through speech and get people to do something;legal acts
(‘I baptise you...’ 
;
‘I pronounce you...’ 
; etc.); for demands – using questions
o
aesthetic 
covers various uses of language found in poetry, fiction and variousaesthetic uses
use for the sake of the linguistic artefact itself 
o
phatic 
(Malinowski)2
 
social relations with people kept on a good level – keeps their communication lines
an intricate system which provides all the social information, so we cancoexist with other people
today put alongside the informational function: they cover the majorityof our verbal exchanges
language has strong social and cultural underline; it is our most powerfultool (we learn the rules as we grow up)
s e m a n t i c s 
: the scientific study of meaning (a clear definition of meaning does not exist)
formal semantics 
: a group of theoretical assumptions of meaning based on formal logic andmathematics
functional semantics 
: a non-formal linguistic approach to meaning
syntactic semantics 
: when we put a word in a sentence, we get a change of meaning
Reising 
o
in 1839 wrote a very comprehensive book on Latin verbs
o
said that dealing with verbs was impossible without incorporating meaning
o
was first to make generalised statements regarding syntax and semantics of Latinverbs
M. Bréal 
o
stresses the need for a separate discipline dealing with meaning, and he calls it for the first time
semantics
o
in 1897 he writes his famous
“Essay on Semantics”
: official beginning of semanticsas a linguistic discipline
o
semantics should be seen as the integral part of any linguistic study; without it,descriptions are unproductive and do not serve to understand how languagefunctions
the
related disciplines of semantics
(from the traditional point of view):
o
philology
a diachronical approach to languages, a descriptive way of viewinglanguages until the beginning of the 20
th
century
its aim is to describe different notions in a vast number of mainly Indo-European languages
philology > etymology + syntax (seen as a descriptive discipline)
o
etymology
part of philology; predecessor of contemporary semantics
deals with how words change in form and meaning over time
primarily a diachronic discipline
e.g.
brijati
: change in form (
brijati se
>
brijati
) and meaning (
brijati
=
brijati bradu
>
brijati
=
misliti
, i sl.)
o
lexicology
analysis of the lexemes of a language (i.e. the meaning of onephonological sequence) and of certain set phrases
o
lexicography
scientific dissection of all the types of knowledge that we need to havein order to produce a dictionary
dictionaries: monolingual, bilingual, encyclopaedic (more scientific3

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