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Phase 2 - Decide on Objectives and Assessments

Phase 2 - Decide on Objectives and Assessments

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Published by: deelite31 on Mar 10, 2011
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Integrating Technology to Assist English 101Students with Their Essays
Outcome Objective Measure(s) AssessmentMeasurements
Composing a variety of essaysby developing content,employing specificorganizational patterns, andselecting language appropriatefor a particular audience andpurpose.Students will be able to apply graphicorganizers based on an organizationalpattern (descriptive, compare andcontrast, cause and effect, andargumentative) to capture and organizeideas for their essays and to developworking theses to further organizegenerated ideas.Students will be able to relate noteswritten on graphic organizers toidentify sources of relevant informationfor specific audiences and purposes.Students will be able to plan roughdrafts using a specific graphicorganizer.Graphic OrganizersStudents will be able to provide peer review feedback using Google Docs.Students will be able to evaluate peer review and use feedback to edit andrevise their rough drafts.Peer ReviewStudents will be able to apply a rubricto help them write and publish essaysfor specific audiences with intendedpurpose that develop a thesis withrelevant material and that follow alogical pattern of development.RubricStudents will be able to use self-reflections to recall, explain, anddefend their writing experiences.(The self-reflections will be discussedwith the instructor using Skype.)Self-Reflection
 
eflection ± Graphic Organizers
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ee, C., Bopry, J., & Hedberg, J. (2007). Methodological issues in using sequentialrepresentations in the teaching of writing.
ALT-J Research in Learning Technology
,15(2), 131-141. doi:10.1080/09687760701482234Per the requirements of College Department of English, students will write a minimum of four papers, and each required essay must be two to three pages in length. Three of the essayswill be written in the following expository forms: comparison/contrast, definition, and cause andeffect. Additionally, students will complete an in-class timed writing assignment which may beone of the two to three page essays. The fourth essay, an argumentation essay, will be a five toten page documented research paper on a current, controversial issue.Struggling writers often find it difficult to plan and write essays. Therefore, students mustbe introduced to tools that will help them to comprehend the writing process and to respondpositively to the writing process. Many struggling writers find it difficult to find a connectionbetween new information and prior knowledge. The writing process of poor writers can be aidedwith the introduction to and use of graphic organizers. Graphic organizers are mental maps basedon organizational patterns such as comparing and contrasting, classifying, describing, narrating,and process analysis. They can also take on numerous forms like Venn diagrams, mind maps,spiders, and fishbones.Cognitively, students should be able to define the steps of the writing process, explain thewriting process, and outline a topic for an essay. In the case of poor writers, these cognitiveobjectives are difficult to achieve, and they need graphic organizers to scaffold the writingprocess. In the first stage of the writing process, prewriting, graphic organizers serve as anexcellent way to help writers identify what information is important for expository writing, howthe information is relevant, and where to locate specific information.
L
ee, Bopry, and Hedberg(2011) make the case for the use of graphic organizers when they write the following aboutgraphic organizers:a.
 
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riters are required to complete graphic organizers with ideas.b.
 
Ideas can be manipulated.c.
 
Students focus on key words.Graphic organizers not only benefit students, who are trying to overcome the anxietyassociated with the writing process; they are also advantageous for teachers. Graphic organizerscan be used in any subject area and make great assessment tools. For example, English teacherscan use graphic organizers in place of an essay question. Furthermore, graphic organizers can beused with groups. In such a case, students would work together to complete a graphic organizer and, then, each student would complete an individual assignment based on the graphic organizer.Overall, graphic organizers benefit all involved in the teaching and the learning of the writingprocess.
 
eflection ± Peer
eview
Cathey, C. (2007). Power of peer review: An online collaborative learning assignment in socialpsychology.
Teaching of Psychology
, 34(2), 97-99. Retrieved from EBSCO
host 
.Cho, K., & MacArthur, C. (2011).
L
earning by reviewing.
Journal of Educational Psychology
,103(1), 73-84. doi:10.1037/a0021950.
W
hen teachers conference with students, they use the experience to help students clarifytheir thinking; assist students in reflecting on their logic; respond to their comments; andfacilitate self-evaluation. Teachers increase their workload when they are the only peopleproviding feedback to numerous students. An alternative to the traditional form of feedback isthe use of peer review. Far too many teachers undervalue the results of peer review because it isassumed that only they are qualified to provide feedback to students.
W
hile students have vastknowledge and could also provide feedback, their services are never fully tapped. According toCho and MacArthur (2011), peer review affords students two roles ± writer and reviewer. In bothroles, students learn what they will and will not put into their own writing.
W
ithout peer review,students do not consider other perspectives. They may not fully address the needs of their audience. Moreover, peer review reminds writers of their purpose for writing.In an effort to the test the effects of online peer review, Cathey (2007) had her socialpsychology students anonymously post their essays to an online discussion board to receivefeedback from classmates.
W
hen she compared students¶ writing on the first essays where sheprovided feedback to the essays reviewed by student peers, there was not much difference in thegrades. On the other hand, Cathey (2007) concluded four crucial things about online peer review.First, her workload was reduced as there was no need to collect papers, comment on them, andreturn papers. Second, she withheld her comments until students posted their comments andlearned that students did an excellent job of accessing each other¶s work. Third, students putmore effort into writing their second essay.
L
ast, students learned from others.Be it online discussion boards (ANGE
L
,
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ebCT, or Blackboard), wikis, blogs, or Google Docs, online peer review encourages collaboration, editing, and revising. Studentsbecome reviewer and writer, and writing is enhanced as a result. Given the opportunities toprovide peer review, students are just as capable of using higher-order questions to assess other¶sthoughts and feelings.
eflection ± 
ubrics
Reeves, S., & Stanford, B. (2009). Rubrics for the Classroom: Assessments for Students andTeachers.
D
elta Kappa Gamma Bulletin
, 76(1), 24-27. Retrieved from EBSCO
host 
.The essays required of English 101 students are considered extended performance tasksbecause numerous instructional objectives are involved. There are several smaller tasks involved

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