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1915 Before and After 1965

1915 Before and After 1965

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Published by hayeren

source: http://www.armenews.com/article.php3?id_article=67489

source: http://www.armenews.com/article.php3?id_article=67489

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Published by: hayeren on Mar 10, 2011
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09/17/2013

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195
BEFOREANDAFTER
by
LEOSARKfSIAN
COMMEMORATIVECOMMITTEEONTHE50thANNIVERSARYOfTHEJURKISHGENOCIDE
OF
THEARMIENIANS
NATIONALOFFICE:212STUARTSTREET.BOSTON.MASS.
 
1915...BEFOREANDAFTER
ITRODUCTIONTheyear1965marksthefiftiethanniversaryofthernaacreofover
on
million
Armenian
men,
women.and
children
in
TurkeybyorderoftheTurkishGovernment.TalaatPasha,whoasMinisteroftheInterior,signed
theordrs
for
themassacreof
Turky'sArmenianminority,
made
it
clearthathisgovernment'sobjcctiewaapur
ly
politicalone.Thenotedhistorian,ArnoldTonbce,inhis
"ArmenianAtrocities:TheMurder
ofaNation"
(1915)quoteTalaataboasting."Afterthis,there
will
beno
Armenian
questionfor
fifty
years."Whatwasthe"Annen
ian
Question?"WhateventsledTurkeytodecidethat"thonlywaytosolvethe
Ann
nianquestionisbyeliminatingthermenians"?ToAndtheanswers,wehavetogobackorne500
y
ar.
FIVECENTURIEOFTURKIHRULE
FollowingtheconquestofConstantinoplebySultanMohammedIIin1453,theOttomanEmpirbecame
firmly
establishedandcountlessChristianandnon-hristiannationsinthNcarEa
t,
theBalkans,
and
NorthAfricaevntunll
found
themelveundrtheruleoftheOttomanTurks=analiennomadann)'whichhadsweptintoAsiaMinorfromtheEa
t
andcountdArmenia
among
herearliestconquests.
AsiaMino,;
traditionallyArmenian
andGreek,becameth"homland"oftheTurk,titcentrfromwhichtb
y
ruledtheirvast
mpire,
TheArmenians,Creeks.andothernon-Turkswerethe"Rnyah",the"cattle's-secondclascitizenswithoutqualprotectionundertheJawandsubjecttocontinuousmis-treatment.
2
 
"POWER
POLITIC"
TheineteenthCentury,markedbytheriseofnationalism,the"shrinking"of
t]1C
world,and"powerpolitics",broughtchaostotheOttomanEmpire,Thsultan"ince'santwarswithRussiaandothersbrought.aboutaconlinuingdeclinoofpower,socialandeconomicdecay.andEuropeandemandsfor
"reforms"
in
Turkish-held'territories.TheTurksreactedwithunprecedentedmassacres=ofBosnians,Serbians,Greeks,
Macedonians,
Bulgarians,Rumanians,Arabs,
and
Armenians.PowerpoliticsandinternalwranglingpreventedthefiveGreatEuropeanPowers-France,GreatBritain,Austria,Italy,andRussia-frompresentingaunitedfrontin
their
demands
for"reforms,"
for
humanetreatment
of
the
Sultan'ssubjects.Their
OWI1
lcrritorialambitions
andconcernover
"control
of
the
Dardanelles"overshadowed
thefateofthe
millionsinthecaptivenationswhosenationalaspirationshadbeenarousedbythepromisesandlofty
pronouncemeats
of
th
Powers.The
Turkishminorities-includingthe
Armnlans=badbecomepawnsinthegameofpowerpolitics....
a
gamewhicheventuallycostthe
minorities
atotalofoverthreemillion
lives,
QUE
TIO-
"IBORThe"rmenianQuestion"specificallycanbeconsideredasstarting
with
theRusso-Turkish'War(1877-78)althoughArmeniabadalreadysu:lferedperiodicmassacresthanksto
the
gameofEuropean"demands"andTurkishreprisals.Article16oftheRusso-Turkish"TreatyofSanStefano"[March3,1878)providedforreforms
in
TurkishArmenia.BritishandAustro-Hungariandiplomaticinterveation,however,resultedinanew'treatyattheCongressofBerlin
in
whichanumberofsignificant"trades"weremade.B~garia.promisedfullindependenceat
San
Stefano,hadbothhermdepndenceand
her
territoryconsiderablyreducedSerbia
and
Macedoniaremained'TurkishandBosniaandHerzegovinawentunderustrianmandates.GreatBritainreceivedCyprusfromTurkey;HussiareceivedagoodportionofArmenian
territory...
andArmenia'srightswere
EOI·gotten.
SanStefano'spremiseofreformstobeguaranteedbythepresenceofRussiantroopsbecameavagueassurancefromtheTurks
with
noenforcementprovisions.Oladstonedenounced
Disraell'sacquistion
ofCyprusas"anactofduplicityunsurpassedandrarelyequalledinthehistoryofman."TheDuke
of
ArgyllprophesiedthatBritainhad,
in.
exchangeforCyprus,exposdtheArmenianstogr,eaterhatedfromtheirtyranniea]rulers
without
anounceof
security.
Europe-notablyBritainandRuin-hadmadethepligbtoftheArmeniansaninternationalquestion,hadbroughtitto
the
conferencetables,hadextractedpromisesfromTurkey,andthenhadagreedto
water
downthe
promises
intomeaninglessnothingsin
exchange
for
territory.
3

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