not be used anywhere during frost-prone months. Durability can be improved by the addition of pozzolanic material suchas low-fired, fine ground ceramic powder, but the general limitations described still apply, especially in northern or marineexposures.The great merit of mature putty lime is that it is often highly compatible with weakened, weathered stones and bricks, isable to accommodate minor building movement, tends to act sacrificially within the masonry face and is ideal inconsistency for pointing, face repair and plastering. In other words, it is often the perfect material for the conservator.Referral to traditional texts, recommended above, must be made with the context firmly in mind. Conservation of historicmasonry faces is not the subject of these traditional treatises. Non-hydraulic lime, as well as feebly hydraulic lime, canperform better than any other, in the right hands, for conservation, for many internal locations or for sheltered summerwork.Lime putty should be matured, in excess of one month, wet stored with aggregates or blended in a mortar mill withaggregates. In the absence of a mill, hand ramming and beating is the ancient and modern practice to produce the bestresults. Slow curing and humidity control are significant to the final performance.
Feebly to moderately hydraulic lime
Building limes, and limes suited to more exposure than the last category, fall into this group. The famous limes producedfrom the lias formation, especially in the south of Britain where the stones are more calcareous than the north, gave theirname to hydraulic lime in the earlier part of this century, so that 'Blue Lias' became synonymous with 'hydraulic lime'. Theuseful deposits consist of clays and marls with prominent thin-bedded limestones. Blue Lias limestones have provided arange of hydraulicities due to the varying composition and the method of burning. The welcome return of a Blue Liassupply at Charlton Adam is currently in the form of a 'borderline', that is a lime at the high end of the feebly hydraulic andlow end of the moderately hydraulic.The tradition in Britain was always to slake hydraulic limes on site and differed in this way to continental practice. One ofthe most interesting and extensive uses of Blue Lias lime was in the conservation of HM Office of Works AncientMonuments and Historic Buildings. In 1911 Frank Baines, Architect in Charge, set out procedures which survived until theearly 1970s, when hydraulic lime ceased production in the UK altogether. A standard mix of two parts hydraulic lime tofive parts of well graded aggregate was recommended at this time. Blending and slaking were carried out together, in apit or metal bin, by putting in alternate layers of sand (5") and ground hydraulic lime (2"), watering the sand every timeand finally cutting through and mixing it by hand with a little additional water. The blended material was then heaped on aboarded platform, polished with the back of a shovel, and left overnight or for at least 12 hours until it was 'cool'. Slightexpansion of the slaking material took place during this time. Any material which had begun to stiffen was rejected.The damp sand method was adopted to avoid the over-watering associated with rose sprinkling, which was observed todestroy some hydraulicity. Lime needed to be freshly burned, although a certain amount of airslaking was not consideredharmful beyond retarding the setting.Whether or not the quick lime is slaked on the production line in a hydrating plant or partially slaked, or unslaked, must beabsolutely clear. The simplest method is to receive a dry, ground, slaked material. If this is not possible, slaking andpreparation to the 1911 procedures must be followed. Limes in this category tend to be pale buff to cream and arerelatively fat and workable. Properly mixed, placed and cured, they have great versatility, but should not be used in verydemanding exposures such as copings, chimneys and pavings. Their initial setting time varies between four and 12hours.
Moderately to eminently hydraulic limes
Moderately to eminently hydraulic limes are not currently manufactured in the UK. Principal imports are from France,Switzerland and Italy. In the continental tradition, these limes have been burned, ground and slaked (hydrated). Theymay contain pozzolanic additives to bring them to a standard, such as cement (some French imports) or volcanic ash(some Italian imports). The popular conception, adding to their convenience, is that they are used in the same way ascement and may be used in all seasons. These ideas need to be qualified.The limes should have been dry stored and should not be in excess of six months old. Opened or damaged bags shouldbe rejected. Blending with aggregates and water should be by an air-entraining process. A spiral blade drum mixer or awhisk mixer are ideal. Ten to fifteen minutes mixing should be interrupted for five minutes to let the mix stand. Mostcritically, the aggregate must be very well graded. This grading requirement applies to all mortar and plaster and shouldbe along the lines recommended in BS 1198, 1199 and 1200 'Specifications for building sands from natural sources', forexample:
Per cent retained on BS sieve meshes
2.36mm 10%1.18mm 20%600 micron 20%300 micron 20%150 micron 15%>150 micron 15%These limes are harsher to work than putty lime or feebly hydraulic lime. The practice of adding a trowel-full of putty to aidplasticity need not be ruled out, but is obviously difficult to specify and control. The inclusion of limestone, especially witha percentage of crushed chalk, will enhance plasticity and fatness.In common with other limes and in spite of the fact that these limes will set in water, slow curing, up to one week, isrecommended. Work must not take place when the temperature is 5ºC and falling.Moderately to eminently hydraulic limes have great versatility and may be used on copings, chimneys, weatherings andpavings, as well as for bedding ashlars, rubble and for plastering. Their relatively quick-setting property and earlyhardness must not be confused with superficially similar properties in cement. These limes retain good water vapourpermeability and the ability to accommodate movement. In view of these characteristics, coupled with salt and frost
Página 2 de 4The Technology and Use of Hydraulic Lime26/02/2011http://www.buildingconservation.com/articles/hydraulic/hydraulic.htm