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Cryogenic Heat treatment

Cryogenic Heat treatment

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Published by: sri7877 on Mar 10, 2011
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Cryogenic treatment
A
cryogenic treatment
is the process of reducing the temperature of components over anextended period of time to extreme cold levels, usually slightly below −190 °C(−310.0 °F), which is why it is called acryogenic process.Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is a common fluid for the process being relatively inexpensive and making up more than 70%of our atmosphere.As the LN2 boils off from liquid to gas at around −195 °C (−319.0 °F), the componentsin its proximity are also cooled. The process is controlled by microprocessors so thatthermal shock is not generated at the same time resulting in damage to components.Before these microprocessors were created, people would dip parts in liquid nitrogen andvirtually turn them to brittle instantaneously.As the material cools its molecular structure is drawn together through contraction andstress and dislocation brought about by production methods is removed or reduced. BothEinsteinand Bose of Germany realized why cryogenic treatment was able to removeresidual stresses. Cryogenic treatment removes heat from an object which then allows theobject to enter its most relaxed state or a condition with the least amount of kineticenergy. After heat treatment, steels still have a certain percentage of retained austenitewhich can be transformed intomartensitevia cryogenic treatment. Other effects are theproduction of martensiteand the precipitation of Eta type carbides. All metals includingcopper and aluminum, not just steel benefit from the residual stress relief that cryogenictreatment promotes.
The process has a wide range of applications from industrial tooling to improvement of musical signal transmission. Some of the benefits of cryogenic treatment include longer part life, less failure due to cracking, improved thermal properties, better electricalproperties including less electrical resistance, reduced coefficient of friction, less creepand walk, improved flatness, and easier machining.It has been found and proved that cryogenic treatment improves wear resistance of manyalloy steels to a great extent.
[edit] Cryorolling
Cryorolling
is one of the potential techniques to producenanostructuredbulk materialsfrom its bulk counterpart atcryogenictemperatures. It can be defined as rolling that iscarried out at cryogenic temperatures. Nanostructured materials are produced chiefly bysevere plastic deformation processes. The majority of these methods require largeplasticdeformations (strainsmuch larger than unity). In case of cryorolling, the deformation in the strain hardened metals is preserved as a result of the suppression of thedynamic
 
recovery. Hence large strains can be maintained and after subsequentannealing, ultra- fine-grainedstructure can be produced.
[edit] Advantages
Comparison of cryorolling and rolling at room temperature:
In Cryorolling, the strain hardening is retained up to the extent to which rolling iscarried out. This implies that there will be nodislocation annihilation and dynamic recovery. Whereas in rolling at room temperature, dynamic recovery isinevitable and softening takes place.
Theflow stress of the material differs for the sample which is subjected to cryorolling. A cryorolled sample has a higher flow stress compared to a samplesubjected to rolling at room temperature.
Cross slip and climb of dislocationsare effectively suppressed during cryorolling leading to highdislocation density which is not the case for room temperature rolling.
Thecorrosion resistance of the cryorolled sample comparatively decreases due to the high residual stress involved.
The number of electron scattering centresincreases for the cryorolled sample andhence theelectrical conductivitydecreases significantly.
The cryorolled sample shows a high dissolution rate. 
Ultra-fine-grained structures can be produced from cryorolled samples after subsequent annealing.
Cryogenic hardening
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Cryogenic hardening
is acryogenic heat treatingprocess where the material is cooled to approximately −185 °C (−301 °F), usually usingliquid nitrogen. It can have a profoundeffect on the mechanical properties of certainsteels, provided their composition and prior heat treatment are such that they retain someausteniteat room temperature. It is designedto increase the amount of martensite in the steel's crystal structure, increasing itsstrength  and hardness, sometimes at the cost of toughness.Presently this treatment is being practiced over tool steels, high-carbon, and high-chromium steels to obtain excellentwear resistance. Recent research shows that there is precipitation of fine carbides (etacarbides) in the matrix during this treatment which imparts very high wear resistance tothe steels.
The transformation from austenite to martensite is mostly accomplished throughquenching, but in general it is driven farther and farther toward completion astemperature decreases. In higher-alloy steels such as austenitic stainless steel, the onset of  transformation can require temperatures much lower than room temperature. More

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