is the process of reducing the temperature of components over anextended period of time to extreme cold levels, usually slightly below −190 °C(−310.0 °F), which is why it is called acryogenic process.Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is a
common fluid for the process being relatively inexpensive and making up more than 70%of our atmosphere.As the LN2 boils off from liquid to gas at around −195 °C (−319.0 °F), the componentsin its proximity are also cooled. The process is controlled by microprocessors so thatthermal shock is not generated at the same time resulting in damage to components.Before these microprocessors were created, people would dip parts in liquid nitrogen andvirtually turn them to brittle instantaneously.As the material cools its molecular structure is drawn together through contraction andstress and dislocation brought about by production methods is removed or reduced. BothEinsteinand Bose of Germany realized why cryogenic treatment was able to removeresidual stresses. Cryogenic treatment removes heat from an object which then allows theobject to enter its most relaxed state or a condition with the least amount of kineticenergy. After heat treatment, steels still have a certain percentage of retained austenitewhich can be transformed intomartensitevia cryogenic treatment. Other effects are theproduction of martensiteand the precipitation of Eta type carbides. All metals includingcopper and aluminum, not just steel benefit from the residual stress relief that cryogenictreatment promotes.
The process has a wide range of applications from industrial tooling to improvement of musical signal transmission. Some of the benefits of cryogenic treatment include longer part life, less failure due to cracking, improved thermal properties, better electricalproperties including less electrical resistance, reduced coefficient of friction, less creepand walk, improved flatness, and easier machining.It has been found and proved that cryogenic treatment improves wear resistance of manyalloy steels to a great extent.
is one of the potential techniques to producenanostructuredbulk materialsfrom its bulk counterpart atcryogenictemperatures. It can be defined as rolling that iscarried out at cryogenic temperatures. Nanostructured materials are produced chiefly bysevere plastic deformation processes. The majority of these methods require largeplasticdeformations (strainsmuch larger than unity). In case of cryorolling, the deformation in
the strain hardened metals is preserved as a result of the suppression of thedynamic