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Chapter 5a

Chapter 5a

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Published by Mohamed Akkash

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Published by: Mohamed Akkash on Mar 10, 2011
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Chapter 5a (AS-Level)
Chemical Energetics
Chemical reactions are accompanied by enthalpy changes, in the form of heat energy.
Enthalpy 
 
,
given the symbol H
,
is the total energy content of thee reacting materials.
Enthalpy change
is the change in the total energy content of the reacting materials
,
giventhe symbol H (
Delta H
).When H is negative
,
the reaction is exothermic; when its positive the reaction isendothermic.Some chemical reactions are:
y
 
Exothermic:Examples:-
 
Combustion of fuel-
 
Respiration in our bodies-
 
Reaction of metals with acids-
 
Reaction of alkalis with acids-
 
Reaction of quicklime with water:
CaO(s) + H
2
O(l)
Ca(OH)
2
(aq) + E
y
 
Endothermic:Examples:
y
 
D
ecomposition of limestone:CaCO
3
(S) + E
CaO(s) + CO
2
(g)
y
 
P
hotosynthesis:CO
2
(g) + H
2
O + E
Carbohydrates (Glucose)
y
 
D
issolving NH
4
Cl:NH
4
Cl(s) + H
2
O + E
NH
4+
(aq) + Cl
-
(aq)
 
 
Ene
rgyis co
n
s
e
r
ed
En
e
 ¡  
y
i
s
n
e
ith
e
 
 
c
 
e
¢  
t
e
£  
nor d
es
tro
ye
d
¤ 
in
e
ith
e
r
e
¥  
oth
e
rmi
c
or
e
ndoth
e
rmi
c
r
e
¢  
c
tion
s
¦ 
In
e
ndoth
e
rmi
c
r
e
¢  
c
tion
s,
th
e
 
e
n
e
rg
y
i
s
tran
s
§ 
e
rr
e
d to th
e
r
e
a
c
tant
s
(th
e
 
sys
t
e
m) from th
e
 
s
¨  
rrounding
s
¦ 
In
e
¥  
oth
e
rmi
c
r
e
a
c
tion
s
it i
s
tran
s
e
rr
e
d to th
e
 
s
urrounding
s,
all in th
e
form of h
e
at.
En
th y
and En
th
alp
y
 
ch
an
g
e
s
 
M
e
ntion
e
d
e
arli
e
r ar
e
th
e
d
e
finition
s
of 
e
nthalp
y
and
e
nthalp
y
 
c
hang
e
.

 
 


 H ha
s
a unit of kilojoul
es
p
e
r mol
e
(kJ mol
-
).W
e
 
c
an illu
s
trat
e
 
e
nthalp
y
 
c
hang
es
u
s
ingEnthalp
y
 
©  
rofil
es
(or Enthalp
y
graph
s
).
S
hownb
e
low ar
e
 
s
om
e
 
e
  
ampl
es
 
 
Exampl
e
 
 


 

 
In whi
c
h
  
e
lta H =
-890
kJ/mol.
 
 
Standard
E
nthalp Chan es (
H
)
When we want to compare the enthalpy changes of reactions
,
we must usestandard conditions.A standard enthalpy change for a reaction takes place under these conditions
,
which are known asstandard:
y
 
P
ressure
=
1 atm
=
100k
P
a
y
 
T
emperature
=
298K
y
 
M
ole
=
1mol
y
 
Concentration
=
1
M
 
=
1

of solutions
y
 
Reactants and
P
roducts in normal physical and standard condition
Standard enthalpy change of reaction (
H
r
)
 
H
r
is the enthalpy change when the amounts of reactants given in reaction equation react understandard conditions to give products in the standard conditions.Example:2H
2 (g)
+2O
2 (g)
2H
2
O
(l)
 H
R
 
=
-572kJBU
T
 H
2 (g)
+
O
2(g)
 H
2
O
(l)
H
R
 
=
-286 kJ
Standard enthalpy change of formation of compounds (
H
)
 
H
F
is the enthalpy change when 1 mol of thecompound is formed from its elements understandard conditions.Example:H
F
(H
2
O)
=
-286 kJ/mol

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