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Table Of Contents

Teaching should be based on a knowledge of learning
Perspectives on learning
Learning defined and described
Types of learning
Categories of learning
Learning physical (psychomotor) skills
Acquiring information
Developing intellectual skills
Learning cognitive and metacognitive strategies
Developing attitudes, beliefs and values
Intentional learning and incidental learning
Observational learning
Rote learning versus meaningful learning
Learning hierarchies
The process and sequence of learning
The role of practice
Behavioural theory
Theories of learning and motivation
Cognitive theories of learning
Information processing
Representing information in long-term memory
Constructivist perspective
Criticisms of the constructivist viewpoint
Locus of control and attribution theory
Explanatory style
Attribution retraining
Metacognition and self-regulation
Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
Expectancy-value theory
Motivation in the classroom
Brain, memory and intelligence
Brain development
Learning and the brain
Exploring brain function and structure
Short-term memory
Working memory
Long-term memory
Models of intelligence
Contemporary views
Can intelligence be taught?
Beyond intelligence
A current definition
Students with learning difficulties
Learning difficulties: prevalence and causes
Possible causes of learning difficulty
Teaching methods as a cause of learning difficulty
Classroom environment
Socio-economic disadvantage
Poor relationship between student and teacher
Poor school attendance
Health and physical status
Learning through the medium of a second language
Loss of confidence
Emotional or behavioural problems
Below-average intelligence
Sensory impairment
Specific information processing difficulties
Visual perceptual difficulties
Auditory perception
Attentional difficulties
Discrepancy between ability and achievement
Specific learning disabilities
Defining and describing learning disability
Types of learning disability
Genetic factors
Neurological factors
Phonological awareness and rapid automatic naming
Visual perception
Learning style
Dyspedagogia (inefficient teaching)
Differential diagnosis
Are students with SpLD really different from other low achievers?
Intervention methods
Defining and describing reading
Difficulties in reading
Learning to read
Word identification and phonics
Reading difficulties
Reading disability: dyslexia
Aptitude-Treatment Interactions
Phonological awareness
Is dyslexia different from other types of reading difficulty?
General principles of intervention
The need for explicit instruction
Difficulties in writing and spelling
Developmental aspects of writing and spelling
Difficulties in writing
Difficulties with spelling
Phonological skills
Visual imagery
Insufficient instruction
Specific disability in written language: dysgraphia
Intervention: general principles
Strategy instruction
Interventions for spelling
Use of computers and spellcheckers
Learning difficulties in mathematics
The changing nature of mathematics education
Learning difficulties in mathematics
Poor teaching generates poor learning
Affective components of learning difficulties in mathematics
Specific learning disability in mathematics: developmental dyscalculia
Specific areas of weakness
Subtypes within dyscalculia
Determining a student’s instructional needs
Intervention: general principles and strategies
Description and definition
Intellectual disability
Mild intellectual disability
Moderate intellectual disability
Severe intellectual disability
Causes of intellectual disability
Language delay or disorder
Social development
Teaching approaches for students with intellectual disability
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Learning and Learning Difficulties

Learning and Learning Difficulties

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Published by delta_pug

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Published by: delta_pug on Mar 11, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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This book is a must-have for teachers, particularly at the elementary level in order to avert students' learning problems.

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