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The Three Orders

The Three Orders

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Published by Ramita Udayashankar
Class XI Themes in World History
Class XI Themes in World History

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Published by: Ramita Udayashankar on Mar 11, 2011
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02/07/2014

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Yge Ygqee oqieq~1 lbqd~2& Go{ {b~ yge ~onjb` oqieq xje{ei az yge Hqefng sqje~y`z n`b~~?
Yge Hqefng sqje~y~ {eqe oh yge xje{ ygby b`` seos`e {eqe sbqy oh yge ofe oh yge ygqee‗oqieq~‚ b~ seq ygejq onnusbyjof& B aj~gos ruoyei ygby ‗Geqe ae`o{ ~ole sqbz, oygeq~hjkgy, oygeq ~yj`` {oqd…‚ ~o yge ygqee oqieq~ oh yge Hqefng oq Euqosebf ~onjeyz {b~kefeqb``z yge n`eqkz, yge foaj`jyz bfi yge seb~bfyqz&
1& [gby {eqe yge ygqee ~onjb` nbyekoqje~ bqoufi {gjng yge ~onjeyz oh Euqoseqexo`xei aey{eef :
yg
yo 28
yg
nefyuqje~?
Yge ygqee oqieq~ oh heuib` ~onjeyz fble`z, Ngqj~yjbf sqje~y~, `bfi o{fjfk foa`e~ bfi seb~bfy~ {eqe yge jlsoqybfy ajhuqnbyei nbyekoqje~ {go~e ngbfkjfk qe`byjof~gjs~ {eqeyge jlsoqybfy hbnyoq~ jf ~gbsjfk Euqosebf gj~yoqz hoq ~exeqb` nefyuqje~&
>& [gby j~ ‗heuib`j~l‚?
Yge yeql ‗heuib`j~l‚ j~ ieqjxei hqol b Keqlbf {oqi ‗heui‚ {gjng lebf~ ‗b sjene oh `bfi‚ bfi ‗j~l‚ lebf~ ‗qe`byei sqjfnjs`e~ yo ho``o{‚& Ygeqehoqe, heuib`j~l {b~ b sqone~~ygby qexo`xei bqoufi yge sqjfnjs`e~ oh `bfi qe`byei lbyyeq~& B`` ~onjb`, enofoljn bfi so`jyjnb` bhhbjq~ oh ~onjeyz {eqe `ei az yge `bfi&
9& [gby {b~ b lofb~yeqz?
Yge {oqi lofb~yeqz j~ ieqjxei hqol yge Kqeed yeql ‗lofo~‚ lebf~ ~oleofe {go `jxe~b`ofe& Lofb~yeqz {b~ b s`bne {geqe ~sjqjyub` seos`e ~sefy ygejq `jhe b`ofe ~esbqbyeihqol {oq`i`z ygjfk~& Y{o {e``dfo{f lofb~yeqje~ {eqe ofe e~yba`j~gei az ^y&Aefeijny jf Jyb`z jf 51: bfi bfoygeq oh N`ufz oh Auqkufiz jf :23&
5& [gby {b~ yge ‗yjyge‚?
Yge ‗yjyge‚ {b~ b ybw `exjei az yge Nguqng of yge seb~bfy~, {gjng {b~ ofe yefyg oh ygejq  sqoiune kqo{f jf ygejq hje`i~ iuqjfk ofe zebq& Ygj~ {b~ b qeku`bq ybw `exjei az ygeNguqng yj`` yge bixefy oh Lbqyjf @uygeq Djfk bfi gj~ sqoye~ybfy loxelefy&
8& Efk`bfi {b~ `bfi oh +Bfk`e~+& Ews`bjf&
Yge Bfk`e~ bfi ^bwof~ nble hqol nefyqb` Euqose bfi koy ~eyy`ei jf Efk`bfi iuqjfk~jwyg nefyuqz& Yge fble oh yge noufyqz Efk`bfi j~ b loijhjnbyjof oh ‗Bfk`e`bfi‚b~ Efk`bfi {b~ jfgbajyei az Bfk`e~&
;& [gby {eqe yge y{o suqso~e~ oh u~jfk ~ybjfei k`b~~e~ jf yge {jfio{~ oh ygenbygeiqb`~?
^ybjfei k`b~~e~ ie~nqjajfk ~yoqje~ oh Aja`e~ {eqe u~ei jf yge Nbygeiqb`~, ~o ygbyj``jyeqbye~ nou`i ufieq~ybfi hqol ygel '~yoqje~*& Yge~e k`b~~e~, iuqjfk ibz yjle, lbieyge nbygeiqb`~ qbijbfy hoq yge seos`e {go {eqe jf~jie bfi iuqjfk yge fjkgy~, yge `jkgy oh yge nbfi`e~ lbie ygel xj~ja`e hoq yge seos`e ouy~jie&
7& [gby nbu~ei yge `bqke ~nb`e iebyg~ oh seos`e jf yge 29
yg
nefyuqz Euqose?
A`bnd iebyg oq auaofjn s`bkue nbu~ei yge `bqke ~nb`e iebyg~ jf Euqose& Jy {b~ aqoukgy az yge qby~ ygby gbi nole yo Euqose, b`ofk {jyg yge yqbijfk ~gjs~&
:& [gby {b~ yge ab~j~ oh yge enofoljn oqkbfj~byjof jf yge leijexb` Euqose?
Kuj`i~ {eqe yge ab~j~ oh enofoljn oqkbfj~byjof jf yge leijexb` Euqose& Ebng nqbhy oq jfiu~yqz {b~ oqkbfj~ei jfyo b kuj`i& Yge~e kuj`i~ nofyqo``ei yge rub`jyz, sqjne bfi yge~b`e oh yge kooi~&
 
23& [gby io zou lebf az lbfoq?
Lbfoq~ {eqe yge `o{e~y ufjy~ oh biljfj~yqbyjof jf yge heuib` ~z~yel oh Euqose& Blbfoq {b~ yge e~ybye kjxef yo yge `oqi~& Ygj~ lbfoq nofybjfei xb~y yeqqjyoqje~ {jyg bfulaeq~ oh xj``bke~ bfi gbi b`lo~y b`` djfi~ oh qe~ouqne~&
22& [gby io zou lebf az ‗yo{f bjq lbde~ hqee‚?
Jf yge 2>
yg
nefyuqz, lbfz ~eqh~ e~nbsei hqol ygejq lb~yeq~ bfi gji ygel~e`xe~ jf fe{yo{f~& Jh ygez ~unne~~hu``z nols`eyei b seqjoi oh ofe zebq, {jygouy aejfk ij~noxeqei azygejq lb~yeq~, ygez nou`i aenole hqee lef& Ygeqehoqe, ygj~ ~bzjfk aenble sosu`bq jfyge leijexb` Euqose&
21& [gby {eqe yge qjkgy~ kjxef yo yge @oqi~?
Yge qjkgy~ efmozei az yge `oqi~ jfn`uie „ 
Gbxjfk ba~o`uye nofyqo` oxeq yge sqoseqyz ygby {b~ kjxef yo ygel az yge lb~yeq 'djfk*&
Nou`i qbj~e yqoos~ dfo{f b~ ‗heuib` `exje~‚ bfi gbi yge qjkgy yo ljfy nojf~ b~ {e``&
5 lbqd~2>& Go{ iji Dfjkgy~ aenole b ij~yjfny kqous?
Ygeqe {eqe qeku`bq `onb`j~ei {bq~ jf Euqose bfi yge blbyeuq seb~bfy ~o`ijeq~ iji foynols`eye yge oamenyjxe~ bfi ygeqe {b~ bf ba~efne oh kooi nbxb`qz {gjng jfnqeb~ei yge sqoa`el~& Ygj~ `ei yo yge exo`uyjof oh fe{ ~enyjof oh seos`e jf ~onjeyz dfo{f b~Dfjkgy& Ygez {eqe ufieq yge `oqi~, {go {eqe ~uaoqijfbye~ oh yge djfk& Yge dfjkgy~ sbjigj~ `oqi nu~yolbqz hee~ bfi s`eikei yo hjkgy hoq gjl jf {bq& Yge `oqi~ kqbfyei b sjene oh `bfi, nb``ei hjeh, hoq dfjkgy~ jf `jeu oh ygejq ~eqxjne b~ ygejq sqoyenyoqbye& Yge hjeh oh dfjkgy nou`i ae geqeijybqz bfi {b~ oh bfz ~j}e hqol 2333 yo 1333 bnqe~ oq loqe& Bdfjkgy‚~ hjeh nof~j~yei oh b gou~e hoq gjl bfi gj~ hblj`z, nguqng ~eyy`elefy~ oh iesefibfy~ yokeygeq {jyg {byeqlj`` bfi {jfesqe~~& Yge seb~bfy~ nu`yjxbyei yge `bfi oh yge hjeh& Jf ewngbfke, yge dfjkgy sbji gj~ `oqi b qeku`bq hee bfi sqolj~ei yo hjkgy hoq gjljf {bq&B dfjkgy nou`i ~eqxe loqe ygbf ofe `oqi auy qelbjfei `ozb` yo gj~ o{f `oqi&
29& [gby {b~ yge ~jyubyjof oh Euqose of yge exe oh qj~jfk heuib`j~l?
Ygeqe {eqe ~exeqb` ~onjoso`jyjnb` ngbfke~ ygby yood s`bne jf Euqose aey{eef :
yg
bfi2>
yg
nefyuqz& Bhyeq ien`jfe oh yge Go`z Qolbf Elsjqe, ~exeqb` Keqlbfjn kqous~ oh  seos`e oh Eb~yeqf bfi Nefyqb` Euqose nbsyuqei bqeb~ oh Jyb`z, ^sbjf bfi Hqbfne& Iue yoyge ba~efne oh b ~jfk`e so`jyjnb` so{eq {gjng nou`i elaqbne b`` seos`e ufieq ofe h`bk,ygeqe {eqe qeku`bq lj`jybqz n`b~ge~ yo no``eny qe~ouqne~ yo nofyjfue go`i of o{f `bfi&B`` ~onjb` jf~yjyuyjof~ exo`xei bfi qexo`xei bqoufi `bfi qe`byei bhhbjq~, {gjng qbf ofyge qu`e~ oh aoyg jlseqjb` Qolbf nu~yol~ bfi Keqlbf yqbijyjof~& Ngqj~yjbfjyz {b~ ygeqe`jkjof oh `bfi b~ jy {b~ ~sqebi jf b`lo~y {go`e Euqose& Yge Nguqng {b~ foy of`z bqe`jkjou~ jf~yjyuyjof auy b`~o b so`jyjnb` so{eq iue yo yge ngjeh go`i oh `bfi jf Euqose&
25& [go {b~ Lbqn A`ong? [gby {b~ gj~ b~~ulsyjof baouy heuib`j~l?
Lbqn A`ong '27782:99* {b~ ofe oh yge ebq`je~y ~ngo`bq~ oh Hqbfne {go {oqdei of ygenofnesy oh heuib`j~l& Ge lbjfybjfei ygby gj~yoqz j~ foy b`` baouy so`jyjnb` gj~yoqz auyb`~o jfn`uie~ jfyeqfbyjofb` qe`byjof~ bfi `jxe~ oh kqeby seos`e& Ge ~yqe~~ei of ygejlsoqybfne oh keokqbsgz jf ieyeqljfjfk gulbf gj~yoqz bfi yge qerujqelefy yo qeb`j~eyge no``enyjxe bnyjxjyje~ oq bssqobnge~ oh n`u~yeq~ oh seos`e&Gj~ aood 
Heuib` ^onjeyz
yb`d~ baouy yge Euqosebf ~onjeyz aey{eef :33 bfi 2>33 B&I&e~senjb``z oh Hqbfne& Jy gbi ~jkfjhjnbfy ieybj`ei ~onjb` qe`byjof~ bfi gjeqbqngje~, bfi `bfiqe`byei bhhbjq~ bfi nu`yuqb` bngjexelefy oh ygby seqjoi&
28& Yge Lbfoqjb` E~ybye~ {eqe nefyqe~ oh so{eq bfi {eb`yg& Go{?
 
B `oqi gou~e {b~ dfo{f b~ lbfoqgou~e jf heuib` ~onjeyz& Ge {ou`i nofyqo` seb~bfy~‚xj``bke~ jf yge Lbfoqjb` E~ybye~ ejygeq jf ~lb`` fulaeq nofybjfjfk he{ io}ef oh gou~e~oq jf `bqke fulaeq nof~j~yjfk oh bqoufi hjhyz yo ~jwyz gou~e~ oh seb~bfy~& Yge Lbfoqjb`E~ybye~ {eqe ~e`h~uhhjnjefy enofoljn nefyqe~, {geqe ebng bfi exeqz qerujqelefy oh ibj`z `jhe {b~ hu`hj``ei jf yge e~ybye& Yge kqbjf~ {eqe kqo{f jf yge hje`i~4 a`bnd~ljyg~bfi nbqsefyeq~ lbjfybjfei yge `oqi‚~ erujslefy~ bfi qehuqaj~gei yge bqlblefy~,{geqeb~ ~yofelb~of~ lbfbkei ygejq auj`ijfk~& Yge {olef sqesbqei hbaqjn~ bfingj`iqef {oqdei jf `oqi‚~ {jfesqe~~e~& Yge e~ybye~ nof~j~yei oh {ooi`bfi~ bfi hoqe~y~{geqe yge `oqi‚~ iji gufyjfk& Yge e~ybye~ b`~o nofybjfei sb~yuqe~& Yge nguqng {b~ sbqyoh e~ybye bfi yge nb~y`e {b~ ygeqe hoq iehefne, {geqe dfjkgy~ `jxei& Jf Efk`bfi, ygenb~y`e~ {eqe iexe`osei b~ fun`eu~ oh biljfj~yqbyjof bfi lj`jybqz ~yqefkyg ufieq ygeheuib` ~z~yel&
2;& [gjng ab~jn qu`e~ iji lofd~ ho``o{?
Yge lofd~ gbi yo ho``o{ ~exeqb` ab~jn qu`e~ yo ae b ~sjqjyub` aejfk& Exjiefne~ gbxe aeef houfi jf yge lbfu~nqjsy koy hqol Aefeijnyjfe lofb~yeqje~ {gjng gbi ;> ngbsyeq~&^ole oh yge jlsoqybfy qu`e~ {eqe=
Ngbsyeq 8 ~bji
= Yge nof~efy yo ~sebd ~gou`i ae kqbfyei yo lofd~ of`z of qbqeonnb~jof~&
Ngbsyeq ; ~bji
= Gulj`jyz lebf~ oaeijefne&
Ngbsyeq >> ~bji
= B lofd ~gou`i fexeq so~~e~~ b sqjxbye sqoseqyz&
Ngbsyeq 9; ~bji
= Ji`efe~~ j~ yge efelz oh yge ~ou`, ~o hqjbq~ bfi ~j~yeq~ ~gou`i aeonnusjei by neqybjf yjle~ jf sgz~jnb` {oqd bfi by hjwei gouq~ jf qebijfk~&
Ngbsyeq 97 ~bji
= Yge lofb~yeqje~ ~gou`i ae ~eyy`ei ouy jf yge {bz ygby b``qerujqelefy~ '{byeq, lj``, kbqief, {oqd~gos~, eyn* bqe houfi {jygjf jy~ sqelj~e~&
27& [gby {eqe yge lbjf hebyuqe~ oh heuib`j~l jf Euqose?
Yge qooy oh Euqosebf heuib`j~l `jei jf yge bnyjxjyje~ {gjng {eqe yge sbqy oh QolbfElsjqe bfi heuib`j~l oh yge eqb oh yge Hqefng djfk Ngbq`elbkfe& Jy {b~ ~bji yo aeeleqkei `byeq bfi ~sqebi jf {go`e Euqose `byeq& Hqol enofoljn sojfy oh xje{,heuib`j~l qeheq~ yo b djfi oh bf bkqjnu`yuqb` sqoiunyjof {gjng {b~ ab~ei of ygeqe`byjof~gjs aey{eef yge `oqi~ bfi seb~bfy~& Yge seb~bfy~ nu`yjxbyei ygejq o{f `bfi bfi{oqdei of yge `bfi~ oh yge `oqi~ b`~o& Jf `jeu oh `baouq ~eqxjne, seb~bfy~ koy lj`jybqz sqoyenyjof hqol yge `oqi& Yge `oqi~ b`~o ienjiei yge muijnjb` lbyyeq~ oh yge seb~bfy~&Ygeqehoqe, ygby `oqi {b~ b`` jf b`` sqosqjeyoq~ oh `bfi~ bfi seb~bfy~+ hoqyufe~& Ygu~, ae~jie~ enofoljn b~seny~, heuib`j~l b`~o aekbf yo noxeq yge so`jyjnb` bfi ~onjb` b~seny~oh `jhe&
2:& [gby {b~ yge gj~yoqjnb` abndkqoufi oh yge fble !Hqbfne!?
Ygeqe {b~ b sqoxjfne oh Qolbf elsjqe fblei +Kbu`+ {gjng {b~ hu`` oh {jieqbfkjfkkeokqbsgjnb` hebyuqe~ `jde ~eb of y{o ~jie~, ~yqeyngei qjxeq~, loufybjf qbfke~ hoqe~y~bfi s`bjf bqeb~ bssqosqjbye hoq nu`yjxbyjof& B Keqlbfjn yqjae fblei ‗yge Hqbfd~‚nofheqqei ygejq fble yo Kbu` bfi jy `byeq nble yo ae dfo{f b~ Hqbfne 'b~ jf nb~eoh Jfijb, jy~ fble Agbqby gbi aeef ieqjxei hqol Bqzbf yqjae ‗yge Agbqbyb~‚*& Az yge8
yg
nefyuqz ygj~ qekjof {b~ b djfkiol ufieq yge qu`e oh Ngqj~yjbf Hqbfdj~g oq Hqefng~oxeqejkf~& Yge~e Hqefng seos`e gbi xeqz ~yqofk qe`byjof~gjs~ {jyg yge Nguqng, {gjngkoy ~yqefkygefei {gef Djfk Ngbq`elbkfe {b~ kjxef yge yjy`e oh ‗Go`z QolbfElseqoq‚ az yge Sose bqoufi 733 B&I&
13& [go {eqe lofd~?
Ygeqe {eqe ~sjqjyub` Ngqj~yjbf~ jf heuib` ~onjeyz, dfo{f b~ Lofd~, {go osyei yo `jxej~o`byei jf nofyqb~y yo yge n`eqkz {go `jxei {jyg {oq`i`z s`eb~uqe~& Ygez `jxei jf

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its good but sorry to say of no way .........downloading
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download this in pdf version
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