Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Gender

Gender

Ratings: (0)|Views: 68 |Likes:
Published by Tahir Khan

More info:

Published by: Tahir Khan on Mar 11, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/29/2012

pdf

text

original

 
Gender 
.
Gender 
commonly refers to the set of characteristics that humans perceive as distinguishingbetween male and female entities, extending from one's biologicalsexto, in humans, one'ssocial  roleor gender identity. As a term, "gender" has more than one valid definition.Colloquially, it is used interchangeably with "
sex
" to denote the condition of being male or female in any type of entity. In thesocial sciences, however, it refers specifically to social differences such as gender identity.
TheWorld Health Organization(WHO), for example, uses "gender" to refer to "thesocially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considersappropriate for menandwomen".
 "Gender" has also been equated with "sexual orientation" and"identity" (especiallyLGBTsexuality).
[
 
]
People whose gender identity feels incongruentwith maleness or femaleness may refer to themselves as "intergender ".Many languages have a system of grammatical gender , a type of noun classsystemnouns may be classified as
masculine
or 
feminine
(for exampleSpanish,Hebrew,ArabicandFrench) and may also have a
neuter 
grammatical gender (for exampleSanskrit,German,Polish, and the Scandinavian languages). In such languages, this is essentially aconvention, which may havelittle or no connection to the meaning of the words. Likewise, a wide variety of phenomena havecharacteristics termed
gender 
, by analogy with male and female bodies (such as the gender of   connectors and fasteners) or due tosocietal norms. While the idea of gender as a social construct is favored in many social sciences,especiallygender studies,in the hard sciences, researchlinks biological and behavioral  differencesinmalesandfemales as determining factors for gender (here meaning "the state of  being male or female") inhumansand other species; this is assisted by debate regarding the extent to which the various biological differences necessitate differences in gender identity, whichhas been defined as "an individual's self-conception as being male or female, as distinguishedfrom actual biological sex"
.
Contents
 
 
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
Etymology and usage
The historical meaning of 
 
gender 
 
is "things we treat differently because of their inherent differences".
It has threecommon applications in contemporary English. Most commonly it is applied to the general differences between menand women, without any overt assumptions regarding biology or sociology. Sometimes however, the usage istechnical or overtly assumes a particular theory of human nature, which is usually understood in context. Finally thesame word,
 
gender 
, is also commonly applied to the independent concept of distinctive word categories in certainlanguages. Grammatical gender has little or nothing to do with differences between men and women.
The word
gender 
in English
[edit]
As kind
The word
 
gender 
 
comes from the
 
 
gendre
, a
 
 
from
 
 
Old French. This, inturn, came from
 
 
.Both words mean 'kind', 'type', or 'sort'. They derive ultimately from a widelyattested
 
 
(PIE)
 
 
e
n-
,
 
which is also the source of 
 
kin
,
 
kind 
,
 
king 
, and many other English
 
words.
 
It appears in ModernFrench
 
in the word
 
 
(type, kind, also
 
) and is related tothe
 
 
root
 
gen-
 
(to produce), appearing in
 
,
 
, and
 
. As a verb, it means
 
breed 
 
in the
 
 
1616
: Thou shalt not let thy cattle
 
gender 
 
with a diverse kind 
 
Leviticus 19:19.Most uses of the root
 
e
n-
 
in Indo-European languages refer either directly to what pertains to birth (for example
 
pre-gn-ant 
) or, by extension, to natural, innate qualities and their consequent social distinctions (for example
 
gentry 
,
 
generation
,
 
gentile
,
 
genocide
 
and
 
eugenics
). The first edition of the
 
 
(OED1, Volume 4, 1900) notes the original meaning of 
 
gender 
 
as 'kind' had already become obsolete.
Gender 
(d
ʒ
e'ndə
ɹ
),
sb
. Also 4 gendre. [a. OF.
gen(d)re
(F.
genre
) = Sp.
género
, Pg.
gênero
, It.
genere
, ad. L.
gener 
- stemform of 
genus
race, kind = Gr. γένος, Skr.
jánas
: OAryan *
genes
-, f. root γεν- to produce; cf.
K
IN
.]
1.
Kind, sort, class; also, genus as opposed to species.
The general gender 
: the common sort (of people).
Obs.
13..
 
E.E.Allit. P.
P. 434 Alle gendrez so ioyst wern ioyned wyth-inne.
 
1384
C
HAUSER
 
H. Fame
*
1. 18 To knowe of hir signifiaunce The gendres.
1398
T
REVISA
 
Barth. De P. K.
 
VIII
. xxix. (1495) 34
I
Byshynynge and lyghte ben dyuers as speciesand gendre, for suery shinyng is lyght, but not ayenwarde.
1602
S
HAKES
.
Ham
.
IV
. vii. 18 The great loue the generall gender beare him.
1604
Oth
.
I
. iii. 326 Supplie it with one gender of Hearbes, or distract it with many.
1643
and so on.
As masculinity or femininity
The use of 
 
gender 
 
to refer to
 
 
and
 
 
as types is attested throughout the history of 
 
 
(from about the 14th century).
1387-8
: No mo
 
genders
 
been there but masculine, and femynyne, all the remnaunte been no genders but of grace, in facultie of grammar 
 
 
The Testament of Love
 
II iii (Walter William Skeat) 13.
.
 
1460
: Has thou oght written there of the femynyn
 
gendere
? 
 
 
xxx 161 Act One.
1632
: Here's a woman! The soul of Hercules has got into her. She has a spirit, is more masculine Than thefirst
 
gender 
 
 
 
Holland's Leaguer 
 
III iv.
1658
: The Psyche, or soul, of Tiresias is of the masculine
 
gender 
 
 
 
.
1709
: Of the fair sex ... my only consolation for being of that
 
gender 
 
has been the assurance it gave me of never being married to any one among them
 
Letters to Mrs Wortley 
 
lxvi 108.
1768
: I may add the
 
gender 
 
too of the person I am to govern 
 
 
.
1859
: Black divinities of the feminine
 
gender 
 
 
 
.
1874
: It is exactly as if there were a sex in mountains, and their contours and curves and complexions werehere all of the feminine
 
gender 
 
 
 
 
33
 
(February,p. 162.)
1892
: She was uncertain as to his
 
gender 
 
 
 
 
 
11
 
(March, p. 376.)
1896
: As to one's success in the work one does, surely that is not a question of 
 
gender 
 
either 
 
 
17 July.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->