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Table Of Contents

2.1 BIOSENSORS AS FUNCTIONAL ANALOGS OF CHEMORECEPTORS
2.2 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF TRANSDUCERS
22.2 Thermometric Indication with Thermistors
2.2.2 Optoelectronic Sensors
2.2.3 Piezoelectric Sensors
2.2.4 Electrochemical Sensors
2.2.4.1 Potentiometric Electrodes
2.2.4.3 Conductometric Measurement
2.3 BIOCHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS
2.3.1 Enzymes and Substrate Conversion
2.3.1.1 Structure and Catalytic Action
2.3.1.2 Classification of Enzymes
2.3.1.3 Enzyme Nomenclature
2.3.1.4 Components Affecting the Action of Enzymes
2.3.1.7 pH and Temperature Dependence
2.3.1.8 Inhibition of Enzyme Reactions
2.3.1.9Isozymes and Allosteric Enzymes
2.3.2 AntibodpAntigen Interaction
2.3.3 Function of Receptors
2.4 IMMOBILIZATION OF THE RECEPTOR COMPONENT IN BIOSENSORS
2.4.1.1 Adsorption
2.4.1.2 Gel Entrapment
2.4.1.3 Covalent Coup1 ing
2.4.1.4 Crosslinking
2.4.2 Immobilization Effects in Biosensors
2.4.3 Characterization of Immobilized Enzymes in Biosensors
2.4.3.1 Recovery ofEnzyrne Activity
2.4.3.2 Effectiveness Factor
2.4.3.3 Enzyme Loading Test
2.4.3.5 pH Dependence
2.4.3.6 Temperature Dependence
2.5.1 Fundamentals of Mathematical Modeling
2.5.2 The One-Layer Monoenzyme Electrode
2.5.3 One-Layer Bienzyme Electrodes
2.5.3.1 Enzyme Sequence Electrodes
2.5.3.2 Enzyme Competition Electrodes
2.5.4 Multilayer Enzyme Electrodes
2.5.5 Conclusions
3.1 MONOENZYME SENSORS
3.1.1 Glucose Sensors
3.1.1.1 Analytical Enzyme Reactors
3.1.1.2 Enzyme Membrane Sensors fir Glucose
3.1.1.4 Biochemically Modified Electronic Devices
3.1.2 Galactose Sensors
3.1.3 Enzyme Electrodes for Gluconate
3.1.4 Lactate Sensors
3.1.5Pyruvate Sensors
3.1.6 Determination ofAlcohols
3.1.7Sensors for Phenols and Amines
3.1.8 Cholesterol Sensors
3.1.9 Determination of Bile Acids
3.1.11 Determination of Uric Acid
3.1.12 Determination ofAscorbic Acid Witamin C)
3.1.13 Determination ofD-Isocitrate
3.1.14 Salicylate Sensors
3.1.15 Determination of Oxalate and Oxaloacetate
3.1.16 Determination ofNitrite and Nitrate
3.1.1 7 Sulfite Sensors
3.1.18 Determination of Carbon Monoxide
3.1.19 Electrochemical Sensor for Hydrogen Determination
3.1.20 Sensors for Amino Acids
3.1.21 Urea Sensors
3.1.21.1 Urease Reactors
3.1.21.2Membrane Sensors
3.1.21.3 Biochemically Modified Devices
3.1.22 Creatinine Sensors
3.1.23 Penicillin Sensors
3.1.23.1 Enzyme Reactors
3.1.23.2 Membrane Sensors
3.1.23.3 Enzyme Field Effect Transistors
3.1.24 Determination of Glycerol and Triglycerides
3.1.25 Determination ofAcetylcholine
3.1.26 Determination of Sucrose
3.2.1 Enzyme Sequence Sensors
3.2.1.3 Glucose Isomerase-Glucose Oxidase Sensor
3.2.2 Competition Sensors
3.2.3 Enzymatic Elimination of Interferences
3.2.4 Substrate Recycling
3.3 BIOSENSORS USING HIGHER INTEGRATED BIOCATALYSTS
3.3.1 Cell Organelles
3.3.2 Microorganisms
3.3.3 Tissue Slices
3.3.4 Miscellaneous Bioorganic Materials
3.3.5 Lipid Membrane Biosensors
4.1 AFFINITY SENSORS USING LOW-MOLECULAR WEIGHT LIGANDS
4.2 AFFINITY SENSORS BASED ON PROTEINS AND ENZYMES
4.2.1 Binding Sensors
4.2.3 Enzyme Sensors for Inhibitors
4.3 IMMUNOSENSORS
4.3.1 Principles oflmmunoassays
4.3.2 Electrode-Based Enzyme Inmunoassays
4.3.3 Immunoreactors
4.3.3.1 Immunoreactors with Electrochemical Detection
4.3.3.2 Thermometric Enzyme Immunoassays
4.3.4 Membrane Immunosensors
4.3.5 Reagentless lmmunoelectrodes
4.3.6 Piezoelectric Systems
4.3.7 Optical Immunosensors
4.4 BIOSENSORS USING INTACT BIOLOGICAL RECEPTORS
5.1 GENERAL ASPECTS
5.2 BIOSENSORS FOR CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
5.21 Test Strips and Optoelectronic Sensors
5.2.2 Thermistors
5.2.3 Enzyme Electrodes
5.2.3.1 Glucose
5.2.3.3 Lactate
5.2.3.4 Uric Acid
5.2.3.5 Determination of Enzyme Activities
5.3 CONTINUOUS PATIENT MONITORING AND IMPLANTABLE SENSORS
5.3.1 Monitoring of Blood Glucose
5.3.2 Urea Determination in the Artificial Kidney
5.3.3 Determination of Lactate and Pyruvate
List of Abbreviations and Symbols
References
Subject Index
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Biosensors

Biosensors

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Published by Sruthi Alex

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Published by: Sruthi Alex on Mar 12, 2011
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