Depletion of Ozone Layer
A layer of gas high in the atmosphere normally absorbs harmful UV radiation beforeit reaches the ground. CFCs released into the air cause this ozone to break down,allowing the UV radiation to pass through.
: Ozone layer or ozonosphere is a region of ozone concentration in thestratosphere. It is also known as ozone umbrella or earth’s protective umbrella. Itprotects us from the ultraviolet rays from the sun.
: There are 5 layers above the surface of the earth. They are:1. Troposphere2. Stratosphere3. Mesosphere4. Thermosphere5. ExosphereAmong these 5 layers, the ozone is present mainly in the stratosphere. Ultraviolet raysfrom the sun are not allowed by the ozone layer. In the absence of ozone layer the UVrays reach the earth surface. A 10% reduction in ozone concentration will increase theultraviolet radiation reaching the surface of the earth 40%
Causes for the ozone depletion
: The cause for the depletion in ozone layer includesNatural and Anthropogenic processes.1.
: The Natural process of ozone depletion involvesthe conversion of atmospheric Nitrogen into Nitrogen oxides due to thesolar activity. Nitrogen oxide is then transported to the polar region of Stratosphere and depletes the ozone layer through photochemicalreaction. The major reaction causes responsible for ozone depletionmay be summarized as follows:1. Very low temperature during the Antarctic winter.2. Formation of Antarctic vortex.3. Presence of chlorine species in the polar vortex.Chlorine is the major cause of depletion in ozone.2.
: Ozone layer is mainly affected byanthropogenic process. The first anthropogenic process assault on theprotective ozone umbrella was made in 1970. When the Supersonicaircraft began flying in the stratosphere. The Nitrous oxide from theexhausts of these has caused much of destruction in ozone layer. TheCFC’s and CFM’s (chlorofluromenthes) were responsible for peelingthe ozone umbrella in the stratosphere. Hence they are called ozoneeaters. The CFC’s deplete ozone by 14% by relishing chlorine into thestratosphere.
Effect on ozone depletion:Effect on human beings
: Depletion in ozone may cause disease in human beings.
: Every one percent reduction in ozone may cause as much as six percentincrease in Skin cancer. They are of two types: