(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011
Fig. 4. Polling based bandwidth request mechanism
Multicast or broadcast polling mechanism, according tocontention-based area, is a better approach for a large numberof users, but decreases throughput of the system.According to Fig. 4. polling mechanism in WiMAX is a 3way handshaking process which increases delays in thequeues. A user waiting for poll intervals also must wait forthe response of scheduler for grants. In the best situation, after2 frames, request for queues, can access to the channel.
B. Common Channel Aware QoS Scheduling Algorithms
Fairness, delay, throughput, Energy Consumption, PowerControl, Complexity and
Scalability are the importantparameters in scheduler design, a metric evaluation andcomparison. Scheduling in WiMAX can be classified in twomain parts, channel aware and channel unaware methods. Inwhich these method can be used for intra-class and inter-classscheduling. Most of the channel unaware scheduling comesfrom router and CPU fundamentals that extended for WiMAX, , , . This series of algorithms assume an errorfree idle channel for each user, and share resources accordingto their capacity and QoS parameters. In wireless transmissionchannel, for each user, conditions differ and degrade infrequency and time domain. So channel state must beconsidered in resource allocation decision making process.WiMAX uses CQI Channel to inform base station aboutchannel conditions. CQICH information primarily is used byadaptive modulation and coding module to select the bestscheme in transmission. Channel aware scheme also can usethese channel parameters in RSSI and CINR decisionmakings. For the algorithms that use channel state, four maincategories can be named as: Proportional Fairness based, QoSguarantee based, power constraint and System throughputmaximization.The goal, in PF-based scheme , is to achieve the long-termfairness between the queues, especially in BE service classwhich offers no guarantee for quality of service. In PF-basedscheme each user who can maximize Eq.1 gets an opportunityfor transmission.
is an achievable data rate of user i and
is anaverage data rate in a given time window
iscomputed by an exponential averaging in past T
windowsexpressed in Eq.2 :
has impact on throughput, but its accurate selection isdifficult. Proportional Fairness algorithms do not guaranteedelay or throughput, also short time fairness are not satisfied.It cannot be a proper method for a delay sensitive traffic andfor an application minimum throughput requirement, and itneeds to be modified differently.QoS guarantee algorithms provide delay and throughputrequirements for each service class that needs QoS. M-LWDFfamilies  are the most important algorithms in thiscategory that try to modify LWDF, in which throughput, areoptimal. As one of these approaches in  queue i thatmaximizes Eq.3 in subchannel k, can get permission totransfer its packet
In this equation
is throughput in coming frames and
is average throughput in past specific time window.Channel gain is the normalized ratio of the square of noise atthe receiver and the variance of Additive White GaussianNoise. HOL_delay is a waiting time in buffer for packet inhead of the queues. This algorithm using some buffer stateinformation in decision making, are useful for QoS guarantee.
Fig. 5. Time Utility Function
Another QoS-based approach is UEPS scheme  that usestime utility function to make an urgency when, packets inqueues, enter jitter area or next to deadline.
is timeutility function for delay. According to Fig. 5. when packetsenter to a jitter area, first derivative of
increases andEq.4 gets more weight and consequently, high probability toaccess the resources.
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