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High Efficiency QoS Guarantee, Channel Aware scheduling scheme For Polling Services in WiMAX

High Efficiency QoS Guarantee, Channel Aware scheduling scheme For Polling Services in WiMAX

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This Paper offers an efficient channel aware scheduling scheme for IEEE 802.16e WiMAX Mobile, real-time and non-real-time polling service. Compared to a similar scheduling approach, our considered scheduler can guarantee and achieve lower delay with a good average throughput. In order to achieve this object, we introduce a scheduling scheme with four different segments in a decision making process. The first part, a time dependent function that considers the time when packets wait in queues and in a jitter area to prevent packet deadline. Buffer utility function, as the second part, considers buffer size in scheduling to prevent overflow, specifically in nrtPS class with large size packets. The third part, retrieved from proportional fairness algorithms, which in normal conditions gives a fair share to users. Channel SNR and service class weight are also involved in this part. The final section of scheduling relationship, channel condition, is defined more accurately by RSSI and CINR parameters. The simulation results in OPNET show that our proposed scheme has a very good delay and packet loss ratio accompanied by a high throughput. In another scenario, with different number of users and limit resources, we show relationship between admission control and scheduling.
This Paper offers an efficient channel aware scheduling scheme for IEEE 802.16e WiMAX Mobile, real-time and non-real-time polling service. Compared to a similar scheduling approach, our considered scheduler can guarantee and achieve lower delay with a good average throughput. In order to achieve this object, we introduce a scheduling scheme with four different segments in a decision making process. The first part, a time dependent function that considers the time when packets wait in queues and in a jitter area to prevent packet deadline. Buffer utility function, as the second part, considers buffer size in scheduling to prevent overflow, specifically in nrtPS class with large size packets. The third part, retrieved from proportional fairness algorithms, which in normal conditions gives a fair share to users. Channel SNR and service class weight are also involved in this part. The final section of scheduling relationship, channel condition, is defined more accurately by RSSI and CINR parameters. The simulation results in OPNET show that our proposed scheme has a very good delay and packet loss ratio accompanied by a high throughput. In another scenario, with different number of users and limit resources, we show relationship between admission control and scheduling.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011
High Efficiency QoS Guarantee, Channel Awarescheduling scheme For Polling Services in WiMAX
Reza Hashemi, Mohammad Ali Pourmina, Farbod Razzazi
Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringIslamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iranreza_hashemi@ieee.org,pourmina@srbiau.ac.ir,razzazi@srbiau.ac.ir 
Abstract 
This Paper offers an efficient channel awarescheduling scheme for IEEE 802.16e WiMAX Mobile, real-timeand non-real-time polling service. Compared to a similarscheduling approach, our considered scheduler can guaranteeand achieve lower delay with a good average throughput. Inorder to achieve this object, we introduce a scheduling schemewith four different segments in a decision making process. Thefirst part, a time dependent function that considers the time whenpackets wait in queues and in a jitter area to prevent packetdeadline. Buffer utility function, as the second part, considersbuffer size in scheduling to prevent overflow, specifically in nrtPSclass with large size packets. The third part, retrieved fromproportional fairness algorithms, which in normal conditionsgives a fair share to users. Channel SNR and service class weightare also involved in this part. The final section of schedulingrelationship, channel condition, is defined more accurately byRSSI and CINR parameters. The simulation results in OPNETshow that our proposed scheme has a very good delay and packetloss ratio accompanied by a high throughput. In anotherscenario, with different number of users and limit resources, weshow relationship between admission control and scheduling.
Keywords-component; IEEE 802.16e; WiMAX; Scheduling;QoS; Resource Allocation; OPNET 
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 
N
recent years, bandwidth hungry applications, such asvideo and music streaming, large file downloads, etc havebeen significantly used. Wireless and vehicular accession tosuch contents lead companies and standard organizations like,3GPP and IEEE, to develop BWA technology. IEEE 802.16standard families with long distance and QoS mechanismsupport are among the important and active technologies forthese Issues also, counted as a strong 4G candidate under thedevelopment of 802.16m standard version. In our survey,IEEE 802.16e mobile-WiMAX standard [1] has been studiedfor its special features like power management and handovercapability rather than for its fixed version. Two PHY andMAC layers are defined by standard, which in MediumAccess Control layer are responsible for QoS mechanism suchas call admission control and scheduling. For resourceallocation, channel aware scheduling [2] are cross layerprocesses which use some physical layer parameters like SNR,CINR and RSSI for decision making procedure. Unlikechannel unaware scheduling which assumes error freetransmission media, in wireless system, for its extreme timevarying nature, we need to consider channel condition toprevent waste of resource.Mobile-WiMAX uses TDD mode that makes channelestimation easier, also operates in 2-11GHz Frequency Range.Both access technologies, OFDM and OFDMA can be used inWiMAX. Our used technology is OFDMA that increasesBandwidth utilization but makes scheduling problem moredifficult. Scheduler in OFDM decides for OFDM symbol andall subcarriers are allocated to one user, nevertheless eachsubcarrier can select different Modulation and coding schemewhich makes it difficult to estimate average rate in a forwardframe. Decision making for OFDMA is much more difficultthan for a time scheduler, because it must select subchannel ina frequency domain.The smallest allocation unit by Scheduler is called slot. InOFDMA, slot is a combination of some subcarriers and someOFDM symbols. Depending on permutation process, slot mayhave different definitions. For instance, for uplink in PUSC,each slot consists of 3 OFDM symbols and 16 subcarriers. Theother issues are burst in a downlink that must be rectangularFig. 1. which makes it difficult for a downlink scheduler toselect the slot in such a manner that best fits to the userallotment [3], [4], [5]. Packing and Fragmentation are otheroptions that can be used by WiMAX equipment to fit MACSDU in Mac PDU.
Fig. 1. OFDMA Frame in 802.16e
I
233 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011
Fig. 2. Admission control and scheduling for user
 Both of the two procedures utilize transmission frame butincrease overhead and must be considered in scheduling. Themost important parts in QoS are scheduling and call admissioncontrol Fig. 2. which open spaces in standard and have beendone by MAC layer. Medium access control layer consists of 3 sublayers; a) convergence sublayer, b) common partsublayer and c) security sublayer. In convergence sublayer,packet classification and getting proper CID and SFID havebeen done. According to the requirements and the specificparameters, packets are classified into 5 QoS service classes.1) UGS: this class gets fix bandwidth without any overheadand can guarantee QoS, but wastes resource when trafficchanges. 2) ertPS: this service is suitable for VoIP traffic withsilent suppression and needs a polling mechanism to informend of the silence, similar to UGS, QoS parameters aremaximum latency tolerance, maximum sustained rate andtolerated jitter. 3, 4) rtPS, nrtPS: These two service classes arefor real-time and non-real-time variable rate traffic. Forvarying nature of packet size like video streaming in rtPS andFTP download in nrtPS. Polling mechanism is needed tospecify what amount of resource must be granted to the users.For nrtPS, there exists no delay guarantee but minimumthroughput is guaranteed. 5) BE: most of the traffic isclassified to this QoS class of services. After all other classesbeing allocated, there will be no QoS guarantee and queue touse the remaining resources when other class was allocated.In point to point configuration, WiMAX uses a centralizedscheduling Fig. 3. It means, Base station makes decision foruplink and downlink traffic. Even the grant for a user is basedon GPSS (grant per subscriber station), we’ll need anotherscheduler in mobile station. Another grant method, GPC(grant per connection) was outdated in IEEE 802.16e. Before apacket be classified and a scheduler make a decision, the calladmission control unit accepts or rejects the new connection,according to the estimation of a system capacity. Clearly,inappropriate capacity estimation by CAC unit degradesscheduling performance, especially when it accepts more than
Fig. 3. Centralized scheduling in WiMAX
system real capability.
 
II.
 
P
OLLING
A
ND
R
ELATED
W
ORKS
 
A.
 
Polling Service
Bandwidth request in WiMAX is categorized as eitherimplicit or explicit method. In WiMAX mobile, there exists asa whole, 11 different ways for bandwidth request. Unsolicitedrequest, bandwidth stealing, poll-me bit, piggybacking,codeword over CQICH, CDMA code-based and contentionregion based are as implicit method. Polling based methodslike unicast polling, multicast polling, broadcast polling andgroup polling are categorized as explicit method. GuaranteeQoS, required information about the user queues such asbuffer size and head of line packet states. There is a need fordelay and throughput guarantee in an uplink for a serviceclass. Its suitable and possible bandwidth request way ispolling based method. In this way, station polls users forrequesting slot in a periodic interval to transmit their packets.In polling mechanism, at first, user bandwidth must beadmitted by admission control unit. According to QoSparameters defined for queues base station, poll users in aperiodic interval to request for a bandwidth. These pollingintervals may be addressed to individual SSs (unicast polling)or to groups of SSs (broadcast or multicast polling). Polling-based service scheduler uplink traffic makes decision forqueues and then grants bandwidth, in accord to the availableresources and the number of users. Users by decoding UL-MAP in uplink can be informed about their grants.Choosing suitable approach and polling mechanism delay arethe two problems for this method [6]. Unicast polling preventsthe request collisions and can guarantee the delay, but by anincrease in the number of stations, tremendous bandwidth forpolling are required which decrease bandwidth for the grant.
234 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011
Fig. 4. Polling based bandwidth request mechanism
Multicast or broadcast polling mechanism, according tocontention-based area, is a better approach for a large numberof users, but decreases throughput of the system.According to Fig. 4. polling mechanism in WiMAX is a 3way handshaking process which increases delays in thequeues. A user waiting for poll intervals also must wait forthe response of scheduler for grants. In the best situation, after2 frames, request for queues, can access to the channel.
B. Common Channel Aware QoS Scheduling Algorithms
Fairness, delay, throughput, Energy Consumption, PowerControl, Complexity and
 
Scalability are the importantparameters in scheduler design, a metric evaluation andcomparison. Scheduling in WiMAX can be classified in twomain parts, channel aware and channel unaware methods. Inwhich these method can be used for intra-class and inter-classscheduling. Most of the channel unaware scheduling comesfrom router and CPU fundamentals that extended for WiMAX[7], [8], [9], [10]. This series of algorithms assume an errorfree idle channel for each user, and share resources accordingto their capacity and QoS parameters. In wireless transmissionchannel, for each user, conditions differ and degrade infrequency and time domain. So channel state must beconsidered in resource allocation decision making process.WiMAX uses CQI Channel to inform base station aboutchannel conditions. CQICH information primarily is used byadaptive modulation and coding module to select the bestscheme in transmission. Channel aware scheme also can usethese channel parameters in RSSI and CINR decisionmakings. For the algorithms that use channel state, four maincategories can be named as: Proportional Fairness based, QoSguarantee based, power constraint and System throughputmaximization.The goal, in PF-based scheme [11], is to achieve the long-termfairness between the queues, especially in BE service classwhich offers no guarantee for quality of service. In PF-basedscheme each user who can maximize Eq.1 gets an opportunityfor transmission.


(1)Where,

is an achievable data rate of user i and

is anaverage data rate in a given time window
T
t
.
t
iscomputed by an exponential averaging in past T
i
windowsexpressed in Eq.2 :
t1
R
t1

q
t  0R
t1q
t  0
(2)
 
T
t
has impact on throughput, but its accurate selection isdifficult. Proportional Fairness algorithms do not guaranteedelay or throughput, also short time fairness are not satisfied.It cannot be a proper method for a delay sensitive traffic andfor an application minimum throughput requirement, and itneeds to be modified differently.QoS guarantee algorithms provide delay and throughputrequirements for each service class that needs QoS. M-LWDFfamilies [12] are the most important algorithms in thiscategory that try to modify LWDF, in which throughput, areoptimal. As one of these approaches in [13] queue i thatmaximizes Eq.3 in subchannel k, can get permission totransfer its packet
.
 
_, __

(3)
 In this equation

is throughput in coming frames and

is average throughput in past specific time window.Channel gain is the normalized ratio of the square of noise atthe receiver and the variance of Additive White GaussianNoise. HOL_delay is a waiting time in buffer for packet inhead of the queues. This algorithm using some buffer stateinformation in decision making, are useful for QoS guarantee.
Fig. 5. Time Utility Function
Another QoS-based approach is UEPS scheme [14] that usestime utility function to make an urgency when, packets inqueues, enter jitter area or next to deadline.
is timeutility function for delay. According to Fig. 5. when packetsenter to a jitter area, first derivative of 
increases andEq.4 gets more weight and consequently, high probability toaccess the resources.
235 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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