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Structural Engineering Lab 1

Structural Engineering Lab 1

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Published by: Adil Javed Chaudhary on Mar 12, 2011
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11/22/2012

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Experiment Number 1

 
Determination of Stiffness of a model frame.

Introduction to Dynamic Analysis of Structures
All real physical structures, when subjected to loads or displacements, behave dynamically. Theadditional inertia forces, from Newton’s second law, are equal to the mass times the acceleration. If theloads or displacements are applied very slowly then the inertia forces can be neglected and a static loadanalysis can be justified. Hence, dynamic analysis is a simple extension of static analysis. In addition, allreal structures potentially have an infinite number of displacements. Therefore, the most critical phaseof a structural analysis is to create a computer model, with a finite number of massless members and afinite number of node (joint) displacements, that will simulate the behavior of the real structure. Themass of a structural system, which can be accurately estimated, is lumped at the nodes. Also, for linearelastic structures the stiffness properties of the members, with the aid of experimental data, can beapproximated with a high degree of confidence.However, the dynamic loading, energy dissipationproperties and boundary (foundation) conditions formany structures are difficult to estimate. This is alwaystrue for the cases of seismic input or wind loads. Toreduce the errors that may be caused by theapproximations summarized in the previous paragraph,it is necessary to conduct many different dynamicanalyses using different computer models, loading andboundary conditions. It is not unrealistic to conduct 20or more computer runs to design a new structure or toinvestigate retrofit options for an existing structure.Under dynamic or time verying loads the response os structure become function of space andtime. A Dynamic Analysis is response evaluation at different time steps or intervals. It can be said thatdynamic analysis is step wise carried oit static analysis.
 
Experiment Number 1

 
Determination of Stiffness of a model frame.
Types of Dynamic Loads
Dynamic loads can be regular loads i.e. sinusoidal or Harmonic type of loads. Dynamic loads can behighly irregular or random loads. Dynamic loads in case of vibratory machinery are regular types of loadswhere as in case of winds and earth quake these loads are highly irregular or random type loads.
Structural Analysis
Static Analysis
Function of Spaceonly.
Dynamic Analysis
Function of Space andTimeRegular LoadsHarmonic or Sinusoidal typesof LoadsLoad due to VibratoryMachinery.Irregular LoadsLoad due to WindsLoad due to Earthquake.
 
Experiment Number 1

 
Determination of Stiffness of a model frame.
Dynamic Equilibrium
The force equilibrium of a multi-degree-of-freedom lumped mass system as a function of time can beexpressed by the following relationship:……… eq. (1)In which the force vectors at time
t
are
 
F
(t)I
is a vector of inertia forces acting on the node masses
 
F
(t)D
is a vector of viscous damping, or energy dissipation, forces
 
F
(t)S
is a vector of internal forces carried by the structure
 
F
(t)
is a vector of externally applied loads
Equation (1) is based on physical laws and is valid for both linear and nonlinear systems if equilibrium isformulated with respect to the deformed geometry of the structure. For many structural systems, theapproximation of linear structural behavior is made in order to convert the physical equilibriumstatement, Equation (1), to the following set of second-order, linear, differential equations:
 
……… eq. (2)In which
M
is the mass matrix (lumped or consistent),
C
is a viscous damping matrix (which is normally selected to approximate energy dissipation in the realstructure) and
K
is the static stiffness matrix for the system of structural elements.The time-dependent vectors are the absolute node displacements, velocitiesand accelerations, respectively.

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