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Structural Engineering Lab 3

# Structural Engineering Lab 3

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04/24/2013

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Experiment Number 3


Damping ratio and damping co-efficient of a model frame.

-
Damping:
Damping is any effect that tends to reduce the amplitude of oscillations in anoscillatory system, particularly the harmonic oscillator.It is the rate at which the motion of a system decays. Damping is any effect that tendsto reduce the amplitude of oscillation of any oscillatory system particularly theharmonic oscillator. Generally damped harmonic oscillator satisfies the 2
nd
orderdifferential equation.Where ω
0
is the undamped angular frequency of the oscillator and ζ is a constantcalled the damping ratio. For a mass on a spring having a spring constant k and adamping coefficient c,AndThe value of the damping ratio ζ determines the behavior of the system. A damped harmonic oscillatorcan be:

Overdamped (ζ > 1):

The system returns (exponentially decays) to equilibrium withoutoscillating. Larger values of the damping ratio ζ return to equilibrium slower.

Critically damped (ζ = 1):
The system returns to equilibrium as quickly as possible withoutoscillating. This is often desired for the damping of systems such as doors.

Underdamped (0 < ζ < 1):
The system oscillates (at reduced frequency compared to theundamped case) with the amplitude gradually decreasing to zero.

Undamped (ζ = 0):
The system oscillates at its natural resonant frequency (ωo).
Figure 1 Underdampedspring-mass system with ζ<1

Experiment Number 3


Damping ratio and damping co-efficient of a model frame.

Damped Natural Angular Frequency

It is the frequency at which the oscillation occurs when the system is made damped i.e. ζ < 1 and underfree vibration with regards to damping factor and simple natural angular frequency.

Damping Ratio
Damping ratio is a dimensionless measure describing how oscillations in a system decay after adisturbance.It is the measure of damping of a system.
 

j = no of cycles
= displacement at time = 0
= displacement after j number of cycles

Experiment Number 3


Damping ratio and damping co-efficient of a model frame.

Derivation of the damping ratio
An ideal mass spring damper system with mass ‘m; in kilograms and spring constant K in N/metre and dampingcoefficient in N-S/m is subjected to an oscillatory force.
Static force =

Damping force =


F
total
=
  




  




 

  
     
   

Figure 2 Mass SpringDamper Model

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