Experiment Number 3
Damping ratio and damping co-efficient of a model frame.
Damping is any effect that tends to reduce the amplitude of oscillations in anoscillatory system, particularly the harmonic oscillator.It is the rate at which the motion of a system decays. Damping is any effect that tendsto reduce the amplitude of oscillation of any oscillatory system particularly theharmonic oscillator. Generally damped harmonic oscillator satisfies the 2
orderdifferential equation.Where ω
is the undamped angular frequency of the oscillator and ζ is a constantcalled the damping ratio. For a mass on a spring having a spring constant k and adamping coefficient c,AndThe value of the damping ratio ζ determines the behavior of the system. A damped harmonic oscillatorcan be:
Overdamped (ζ > 1):
The system returns (exponentially decays) to equilibrium withoutoscillating. Larger values of the damping ratio ζ return to equilibrium slower.
Critically damped (ζ = 1):
The system returns to equilibrium as quickly as possible withoutoscillating. This is often desired for the damping of systems such as doors.
Underdamped (0 < ζ < 1):
The system oscillates (at reduced frequency compared to theundamped case) with the amplitude gradually decreasing to zero.
Undamped (ζ = 0):
The system oscillates at its natural resonant frequency (ωo).
Figure 1 Underdampedspring-mass system with ζ<1