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AUTO Transformer Protection_ABB

AUTO Transformer Protection_ABB

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Differential Protection schemes for AutoTransformers
1. Introduction
In modern HV and EHV networks is common to find (big) autotransformers thatInterconnect two power system networks. They often have the tertiary deltawinding in order to balance the zero sequence current flow during the faultconditions. Sometimes, in order to limit the physical size of the autotransformer,the three-phase autotransformer is made from three single-phase units.The protection requirements for these autotransformers may differ from utility toutility, but it is often required to provide two independent differential protectionschemes in order to provide the best possible protection to the unit.This document explains the different differential protection schemes which can beoffered by ABB Automation Products AB / Substation Automation Division in orderto fulfill the client requirements. Exactly which type of scheme will be offereddepend on the client requirements, availability of main CTs and available budget.
2. Overall biased Differential Protection
This Differential protection is very similar to the normal transformer differentialprotection. It is based on the ampere-turn balance of the currents of all threewindings. The blocking facility against inrush currents and over-excitation (i.e. 2nd& 5th harmonic blocking) is definitely required for this type of differentialprotection.This functionality is easily obtained by the three-winding differential function (i.e.DIFP function) in RET 521 terminal (Version 2p3). The care shall be taken wheretertiary winding CTs are located. They can be located in two locations:1. outside the delta winding2. in series with the delta winding (i.e. when bushing CTs are used in case of threesingle-phase transformer units)When the CTs are located outside the delta winding, the autotransformer vectorgroup is set as Yy00d?? (i.e. Yy00d01 or Yy00d11 depending on the delta windingconnections) and the data for autotransformer windings under settings for “PowerTransformer Data” are set in the same way as for normal power transformer (i.e.directly from the transformer nameplate). This means that the power for tertiarywinding Sr3 is set to rated three-phase power of the tertiary delta winding, thevoltage for tertiary winding Ur3 is set to the rated phase-to-phase voltage of thetertiary side and the current for tertiary winding Ir3 is set as per the followingformula:Ir3=Sr3/(sqrt(3)*Ur3)However, when the CTs are located in series with the delta winding, theautotransformer vector group has to be set as Yy00y00 (i.e. measured primarysecondary and tertiary currents are in phase). In the same time under settings for
“Power Transformer Data” the data for the tertiary winding have to be change inthe following way:Sr3 same as above (i.e. no change)Ur3 for 1.732 times higher than above (i.e. sqrt (3)*Ur3)Ir3 for 1.732 times lower than above (i.e. Ir3/sqrt (3))
3. Current differential protection for common and serial windings of anautotransformer
Traditionally three-phase high impedance differential relay was used for thisapplication (i.e. RADHA). This differential protection principle is similar to thebusbar differential protection. The differential protection is phase segregated and itis based on the First Kirchhoff’s Law (i.e. sum of all currents entering one electricalnode is equal to zero).In order to use this scheme the main CTs have to be located in all three phases atthe autotransformer neutral and in HV and MV terminals. Refer to the Fig. 2 forthe application principles. Second harmonic or fifth harmonic stabilization is notnecessary with full differential measurement as in this application. It shall benoted that a common CT in the autotransformer neutral is not acceptable.This scheme protects the serial and the common winding of the autotransformeragainst all kinds of phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground faults. Actually it hasmuch better sensitivity for the ground faults close to the autotransformer neutralthan the bias differential scheme described above. However this scheme does notprotect the serial and common winding of the autotransformer against turn-to-turnfaults. It as well does not protect at all the tertiary delta winding of theautotransformer.This functionality can be achieved with RED 521 terminal (Version 1p0) or by usingthe three-winding differential protection function (i.e. DIFP) in RET 521 terminal(Version 2p3).It shall be noted that for both solutions it is possible to have two CT inputs fromHV and MV autotransformer windings. Therefore one-and-half CB switchgeararrangement can be easily accommodated on HV and MV side of theautotransformer.The advantage with the RED 521 terminal is the flexibility to accept different CTratios, insensitivity to turns correction in the main CTs and very fast operation incase of an internal fault (less than one power system cycle).The advantage with RET 521 is the flexibility to accept different CT ratios,insensitivity to turns correction in the main CTs and possibility to include theadditional protection functions like over current or earth fault as well asdisturbance recording facilities. The tripping times are in order of 1.5 to 2 powersystem cycles.
However, it shall be noted that when RET 521 is used, some special settings forthe power transformer data and for DIFP function have to be done in order toobtain required functionality. The special settings required under “PowerTransformer Data” are:
Vector group have to be set as Dd00d00
Rated power for all three windings have to be set to the same value(i.e. Sr1=Sr2=Sr3=rated power of the autotransformer MV winding)
Rated voltages for all three windings have to be set to the same value(i.e. Ur1=Ur2=Ur3=rated phase-to-phase voltage of one of the threewindings, when some voltage function is used on one of the three sides thenthat side rated voltage have to be entered)
Rated currents for all three windings have to be set to the same value(i.e. Ir1=Ir2=Ir3=rated current of MV autotransformer winding)The required settings under “Differential Protection/Basic” are:
Zero-sequence current deduction shall be set to “Off”.
Cross-blocking feature shall be set to “Off”.
Second harmonic blocking shall be set to 20%
Fifth harmonic blocking shall be set to 50%Due to these special settings for this type of application, it might be difficult to usesome other voltage functions in RET 521 terminal like over voltage, under voltage,over excitation and voltage control functions. Care shall be taken about pickupsettings of over current and earth fault functions as well.It should be noted that the RED 521 has different filtering and measuringtechnique than RET 521. Therefore with RET 521 as bias differential protection andRED 521 as current differential protection the requirement for two completelydifferent measuring techniques can be fulfilled.
4. Restricted earth-fault protection for common and serial windings of anautotransformer
Traditionally single-phase high impedance differential relay (i.e. RADHD) was usedfor this application. This differential protection is based on the First Kirchhoff’s Lawapplied to the zero sequence currents only (i.e. sum of all zero-sequence currentsentering one electrical node shall be equal to zero).In order to use this scheme only one common CT in the autotransformer neutral isrequired, but still the three phase main CTs at the autotransformer HV and MVterminals are necessary. Refer to the Fig. 3 for the application principles. Secondharmonic or fifth harmonic stabilization is not necessary with full zero-sequencedifferential current measurement as in this application.This scheme protects the serial and the common winding of the autotransformeragainst all kinds of phase-to-ground faults. It has very good sensitivity for the

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