A Systems Approach on Solid Waste Management in Metro Manila, PhilippinesRhea Abigail Navarro, LUMES 2002/2003
The matter of solid waste and its management in Metro Manila had catapulted itself into thelimelight in 2000, during which a number of issues plagued the solid waste management (SWM)sector. First came the ‘Payatas Tragedy’ in July when a huge amount of garbage in Payatas, thelargest active open dumpsite in the Philippines, was loosened by heavy rains and caved in on thecommunity of scavengers living around it. Next came the premature closure of the San MateoWaste Disposal Facility (SMWDF), which took in majority of Metro Manila’s solid waste at thattime. Come 2001, a garbage crisis ensued, forcing the regional government to declare a ‘state of emergency’ to obtain assistance from the national government. That same year, the Philippines’first comprehensive SWM law, the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act (RA 9003) whichemphasized community based efforts in material recovery and composting, was passed.Currently, a controlled dump in the outskirts of Metro Manila takes in the bulk of thegenerated solid waste. There is, however, still an impending garbage crisis looming over MetroManila, despite the passing of RA 9003. This study examines the SWM sector in Metro Manila as asystem and identifies the challenges that hinder implementation of RA 9003. The analysis is doneusing statistical data from the National Statistics Office of the Philippines (NSO), the NationalStatistical Coordination Board of the Philippines (NSCB), the Metro Manila DevelopmentAuthority (MMDA) and other data from relevant bodies with causal loop diagrams, as well as,STELLA models as tools for data synthesis. This thesis also endeavors to examine and discuss theeffects of applying user fees, increasing SWM personnel services expenditure, increasingenvironmental education and opening a sanitary landfill using both system analysis toolsmentioned.