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Geography Chapter 15-The British Isles and Nordic Nations

Geography Chapter 15-The British Isles and Nordic Nations

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Published by: TheGeekSquad on Mar 14, 2011
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Chapter 15British Isles and Nordic Nations
Ore: a rocky material containing a valuable mineral
Moor : broad, treeless, rolling land, often poorly drained and having patches of marsh and peat bog
Bog: an area of wet, spongy ground
Glen:a narrow valley
Peat:spongy material containing waterlogged and decaying mosses and plants, sometimes dried andused as fuel
Blight:a plant disease1. How do the regional physical characteristics of England affect the economy?
Rural Englandgreen, rolling meadows, peaceful rivers, neat farms
Band of hills running the length of England’s west coast
Old rock formations worn down by centuries of weatheringeven so, some peaks rise to3,000 ft and the land is difficult to farm
Here lies coal that fueled the Industrial Revolution
Factory towns darken the air with fumes from their mills
Heavy industrial developmentEngland’s highest population densities
Land slopes gently toward the English Channel and elevations rarely top 1,000 ft
Soil tends to be fertileyounger, softer rocks lie beneath the earth’s surface
Most productive farmers are heregrow wheat, vegetables, and other crops
Set aside larger parcels of land for pasture
Cool, moist weather of marine west coast climate is perfect for raising sheep, dairy, andbeef cattle
Goods sold in the UK and other European Union nations2. Why did London become one of the greatest commercial and shipping centers in the world?
The hills along the English Channel drop sharply, forming steep cliffs that plunge straight down to thewaterin contrast, London is located along the Thames riverships can sail directly up to the port of London
Even before industrialization, England’s farms produced surplus goods for exporttrade within Englandand with other European nations fostered the growth of cities along rivers and the coast3. What nickname did Britain earn due to its creation and trading of goods?
“workshop of the world”4. What impact did technological innovations have on the British economy?
First innovations used in factories that produced textiles/cloth
Manufacturers first used water power to run spinning machines but later switched to coal as a source of power for the steam engine
Britain possessed large reserves of iron oreinventors improved methods of melting iron ore and usingit in the production of steel
Towns of Birmingham, Sheffield, and Newcastle grew dramatically in size as nearby coal fields madethem centers of manufacturing
Coal supplies were so plentiful that the phrase “carrying coals to Newcastle” developed to describe anunnecessary action5. How did the Industrial Revolution change and expand economic activities in the United Kingdom?
Brought wealth to Britain, but factories and mines also changed the landscape“dark, Satanic mills”spoiled “England’s green and pleasant land”there was noise “beyond description” and the filth was“sickening”
Much of the area’s coal supply was used up during the Industrial RevolutionBritain had to turn to oiland gas deposits beneath the floor of the North Sea as a source for fuel6. Why did the British government encourage the growth of tertiary economic activities?
To offset the loss of heavy industriesmuch of the area’s coal supply was used up during the IndustrialRevolution7. Describe Scotland’s physical characteristics.
Occupies 1/3 of the land are in the UK, but less than 10% of the nation’s pop. Live there
Landscape is ruggedbears the marks of heavy glaciers that moved across the N. part of Great Britainduring the last ice age
Cheviot Hills and Tweed Riverphysical features that separate Scotland from England
Northern Highlands 
Large, high plateau with many lakes (called lochs) which were carved by retreating glaciers
Grampian Mountainscut across the region with peaks reaching past 4,000 ft
Both coasts etched deeply by the sea with inlets called firths
Covered with moorswhich are dotted with bogs
Steady winds off the Atlantic Ocean bring abundant rainfall to the moorsthe dampness of thesoil limits plant growth to grasses and low shrubs such as purple heather 
Land water, + climate of the Highlandswell suited to the economies of fishing and sheepherding
Central Lowlands 
75% of Scotland’s people live in the region (which stretches between Glasgow and Edinburgh)
Clyde River near Glasgow great into a huge shipbuilding centerplayed a major role inestablishing the United Kingdom as the world’s leading naval power 
Loss of jobs has caused more than 1/3 of Glasgow’s residents to leave since 1960
Southern Uplands 
Closest to the English bordersheep-raising region
Tweed River valley woolen millskept well supplied with wool by area farmers
Cheviot Hillshighest in the area, give way to rolling plateaus worn down by glaciers
Medieval abbeys and low, hilly landscapesdraw many visitors to the region8. How are the Scottish and Welch trying to maintain their cultural heritages?
When the Scottish and English parliaments were united through the Act of Union in 1707,Scotland kept important trading and political rights
Many Scots also remained members of the Presbyterian Church, rather than joining the Churchof England
In 1997, Scottish voters approved the creating of a new Scottish parliament
Has its own capital city, postage stamps, flag, and language
Most of its 2.9 million people speak English, but nearly 20% still speak Welsh as their firstlanguage
Welshspoken mainly in the mountains of N. Wales-handed down from the Celtic peoples wholived in Wales for 1,000’s of years
1980’sWelsh patriots fought for and won the right to broadcast television programs entirely inWelsh9. Describe the Welch economy.
Similar to that of England and Scotland
Late 1800’s and early 1900’sindustry + coal mining changed the landscape + economy of S. Wales
Mines in the Rhondda Valley became some of Britain’s biggest coal producers
Mid-1900’sheavy industries had fallen behind in technology
1980’smost of the coal mines in the Rhondda Valley had closedunemployment rates soared, andmany students leaving high school could not find jobs despite the arrival of new petroleum refineries
1990’ssituation improved as foreign investment provided new jobs in high-tech industries
Some people promoted tourism for those interested in seeing the traditional Welsh way of life10. How have invasions impacted Irish history?
300 B.C.Celtic tribes from Europe first settled in Ireland and repeatedly defended themselves fromViking raids
800 to 1014 A.D.Viking raids
1066Norman invaders from France conquered Englandsome Normans also seized large tracts of land in Ireland, built castles to protect themselves, and tried to control the Celts
They forbade marriage between Normans and Celts, banned use of the Celtic language (AKAGaelic), and even outlawed Celtic harp music
1711King Henry II of England declared himself Lord of Ireland and tried unsuccessfully to forceNorman lords to obey himEnglish rulers who followed him began thinking of Ireland as a possession11. Describe the religious conflict in Ireland.
In the early 1500’s, groups in Europe tried to change some of the Roman Catholic Church’s practicesand started a reform movement known as the Reformation.
Many of the reformers, called Protestants, broke with the Roman Catholic Church and formed newChristian churches.
Most of the English people became Protestantsthe Irish remained Catholics
This division led to bitter conflicts between Irish Catholics and landlords sent from Englandeconomicsplayed a major part
The Protestant minority controlled much of the wealthIrish Catholics were poor 
This conflict led to cultural divergencedeliberate efforts to keep the cultures separate12. How did the Potato Famine impact Ireland?
Blight (plant disease)destroyed the potato crop every yearwhich most of the people relied on astheir major source of nutrition
As a result, about 1 million Irish died of starvation/disease
This crisis further inflamed anti-British feelings because many Irish Catholics blamed England for notproviding enough aid
Pushed from the island by famine, nearly 2 million Irish emigrated in just 7 years
Pulled by lure of jobs, most immigrated to the US’13. How has Ireland’s economy changed in recent years?
Government invested in education and telecommunications
Offered tax incentives that persuaded foreign high-tech companies to locate administrative offices inIreland
Plan so successfulIrish economic growth was the highest in Europe between 1994 and 2000
Per capita income increased dramatically and unemployment fell to 3.8%1 of Europe’s lowestunemployment rates
New economic climate pulled many immigrants to Ireland
1999Ireland adopted the euroinflation rose to 6.2%, triple the European averagehousing costsskyrocketed
Some people worry about growing income gap between workers in the new economy and those intraditional service industries14. What physical characteristics define the Nordic nations as a region?
A Varied Landscape
Region is a collection of peninsulas + islands separated by seas, gulfs, + oceans
Most continuous landmassesScandinavian + Jutland peninsulas
Terrain varies dramaticallyDenmark’s highest point is 600 f, whereas Norway is 1 of the mostmountainous nations in Europe
Environmental Change
Glaciers carved out thousands of lakes across the Scandinavian Peninsularemoved topsoil +other materials and deposited them in Denmark and other parts of W. Europeas a result,much of the soil in Scandinavia remains rocky + difficult to farm
Natural Resources
Icelandvolcanoes + glaciers exist side by side
Icelanders have learned to take advantage of the island’s geology to produce geothermalenergy
Long Winters, Short Summers
Norden’s location to the far north results in long winters and short summersat midwinter thesun may sine only 2/3 hours a day; in midsummersun shines for more than 20 hours

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