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Published by: sushripragnyaparija on Mar 14, 2011
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Ceramic items are made of clay. The composition and type of fire on the clay,determines what type of ceramic you have. There are three types, pottery,stoneware or porcelain. Here is a list of characteristics of each.
1. Pottery
 Pottery, also known as earthenware is a porous, lightweight material. While largerpiece can get very heavy, lightweight refers to the strength of the material. Potteryis easily scratched and has a grainy texture. This is why it is used mainly for plants,bowls or vases. While plates can be made of pottery, these should be mainly forshow. If you have to cut any food on your pottery plate, the plate will be scratchedby the knife. Because of pottery's composition, it is easy to manipulate. This is whymany people spin pottery as a hobby, making all sorts of items.
2. Ironstone
 Ironstone, or stoneware, is a heavier material. It is nonporous, which gives it a fine-grain. If these pieces are left unfired, they can be very casual or rugged, and usedfor big pots or jugs. When ironstone is fired it is very smooth. You can use it forlarge cooking dishes or delicate plates and candy jars. It is very difficult to scratchwith a knife.
3. Porcelain
 Porcelain is widely used as plate. Its nonporous and glassy structure makes itimpossible to scratch with a knife. Depending on the style and fire on a porcelainplate, it is probably called china. We used to call plates china only if they originatedfrom China. But, now, it is a common term, like Kleenex, to describe a type of dishware. Porcelain is a moderate weight. This give it an advantage as well for dishes,so that everyone can pick them up and move them from place to place.figure
Ceramic Properties
 The properties of ceramic materials, like all materials, are dictated by the types of atoms present,the types of bonding between the atoms, and the way the atoms are packed together. This isknown as the atomic scale structure. Most ceramics are made up of two or more elements. This iscalled a compound. For example, alumina (Al
), is a compound made up of aluminum atomsand oxygen atoms.The atoms in ceramic materials are held together by a chemical bond. The two most commonchemical bonds for ceramic materials are covalent and ionic. For metals, the chemical bond iscalled the metallic bond. The bonding of atoms together is much stronger in covalent and ionicbonding than in metallic. That is why, generally speaking, metals are ductile and ceramics arebrittle. Due to ceramic materials wide range of properties, they are used for a multitude of applications. In general, most ceramics are:
thermal insulators,
electrical insulators,
oxidation resistant,
prone to thermal shock, and
chemically stable.
What to do after BE in metallurgy? A metallurgist can pursue his education further to M.Tech/M.E. and even can takeup a Phd. in a particular subject. Besides that jobs in industries, research institutesand laboratories can also be...What is iron metallurgy? The science of metal iron and its alloys is called iron metallurgy.What ismetallurgy? Metallurgy is the art of working metals, comprehending the whole process of separating them from other matters in the ore, smelting, refining, and parting them;sometimes, in a narrower sense, only...What is primary metallurgy? Primary Metallurgy is the science of extraction of metals from ores & minerals. If there are more than one ways of extracting a metal from its ore or mineral, then theprocess which gives a more...
Van der Waals force
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaInphysical chemistry,the
van der Waals force
van der Waals interaction
), named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, is the attractive or repulsive forces between molecules(or between parts of the same molecule) other than those due to covalent bondsor to theelectrostatic interactionof ionswith one another or with neutral molecules.
The termincludes:
force between two permanentdipoles(Van der Waals-Keesom force)
force between a permanent dipoleand a corresponding induced dipole (Van der Waals- Debye force)
force between two instantaneously induceddipoles(London dispersion force or Van der  Waals-London force)It is also sometimes used loosely as asynonymfor the totality of intermolecular forces. Van der Waals forces are relatively weak compared to normal chemical bonds, but play a fundamentalrole in fields as diverse assupramolecular chemistry, structural biology, polymer science, nanotechnology,surface science, andcondensed matter physics.Van der Waals forces define the chemical character of manyorganic compounds.They also define the solubility of organic substances inpolar and non-polar  media. In low molecular weightalcohols,the properties of the polar hydroxyl group dominate the weak intermolecular forces of van der Waals. In higher molecular weight alcohols, the properties of the nonpolar hydrocarbon chain(s) dominate anddefine the solubility. Van der Waals-London forces grow with the length of the nonpolar part othe substance.

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