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A Quantization based blind and Robust Image Watermarking Algorithm

A Quantization based blind and Robust Image Watermarking Algorithm

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Published by ijcsis
Security and privacy issues of the transmitted data have become an important concern in multimedia technology. Watermarking which belong to the field of information hiding has seen a lot of research interest recently. Watermarking is used for a variety of reasons including security, content protection, copyright management, trust management, content authentication, tamper detection and privacy. Recently many watermarking techniques have been proposed to support these applications but one major issue with most of the watermarking techniques is that these techniques fail in the presence of severe attacks. This has been a major threat to content providers because if the digital content is dramatically changed then it would be difficult to prove the existence of a watermark in it and consequently its ownership. To tackle this security threat towards ownership issues in this paper, we propose a computationally efficient and secure two quantization based watermarking algorithms which offer incredible performance in presence of malicious attacks which try to remove ownership information. The performance of the proposed techniques is compared with that of other watermarking techniques and it gives a very good perceptual quality especially at lower bit rates. We present experimental results which show that the proposed techniques outperform many techniques for multimedia over wireless applications. The proposed schemes are backed up with excellent results.
Security and privacy issues of the transmitted data have become an important concern in multimedia technology. Watermarking which belong to the field of information hiding has seen a lot of research interest recently. Watermarking is used for a variety of reasons including security, content protection, copyright management, trust management, content authentication, tamper detection and privacy. Recently many watermarking techniques have been proposed to support these applications but one major issue with most of the watermarking techniques is that these techniques fail in the presence of severe attacks. This has been a major threat to content providers because if the digital content is dramatically changed then it would be difficult to prove the existence of a watermark in it and consequently its ownership. To tackle this security threat towards ownership issues in this paper, we propose a computationally efficient and secure two quantization based watermarking algorithms which offer incredible performance in presence of malicious attacks which try to remove ownership information. The performance of the proposed techniques is compared with that of other watermarking techniques and it gives a very good perceptual quality especially at lower bit rates. We present experimental results which show that the proposed techniques outperform many techniques for multimedia over wireless applications. The proposed schemes are backed up with excellent results.

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Published by: ijcsis on Mar 14, 2011
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011
A Quantization based blind and Robust ImageWatermarking Algorithm
Mohamed M. Fouad
 Electronics and Communication Department- Faculty of Engineering- Zagazig University- Egypt 
fouadzu@hotmail.com 
 Abstract 
 — 
Security and privacy issues of the transmitted datahave become an important concern in multimedia technology.Watermarking which belong to the field of information hidinghas seen a lot of research interest recently. Watermarking is usedfor a variety of reasons including security, content protection,copyright management, trust management, contentauthentication, tamper detection and privacy. Recently manywatermarking techniques have been proposed to support theseapplications but one major issue with most of the watermarkingtechniques is that these techniques fail in the presence of severeattacks. This has been a major threat to content providersbecause if the digital content is dramatically changed then itwould be difficult to prove the existence of a watermark in it andconsequently its ownership. To tackle this security threat towardsownership issues in this paper, we propose a computationallyefficient and secure two quantization based watermarkingalgorithms which offer incredible performance in presence of malicious attacks which try to remove ownership information.The performance of the proposed techniques is compared withthat of other watermarking techniques and it gives a very goodperceptual quality especially at lower bit rates. We presentexperimental results which show that the proposed techniquesoutperform many techniques for multimedia over wirelessapplications. The proposed schemes are backed up with excellentresults.
 Keywords-component; Watermark Detection; Watermarking; DCT; DWT; Quantization
I. INTRODUCTIONWatermarking is a method of hiding proprietaryinformation in digital media like photographs, digital music, or digital video. The ease with which digital content can beexchanged over the Internet has created copyrightinfringement issues. Copyrighted material can be easilyexchanged over peer-to-peer networks, and this has causedmajor concerns for those content providers who produce thesedigital contents. In order to protect the interest of the content providers these digital contents can be watermarked.The process of 
embedding
a
watermark 
in a
multimediaobject 
 
is termed as watermarking. A Watermark can beconsidered as a kind of a signature, which reveals the owner of the multimedia object. Content providers want to embedwatermarks in their multimedia objects (digital content) for several reasons like copyright protection, contentauthentication, tamper detection etc. A watermarkingalgorithm embeds a
visible
or 
invisible watermark 
in a givenmulti-media object. The embedding process is guided by useof a
secret key
, which decides the locations within themultimedia object (image) where the watermark would beembedded. Once the watermark is embedded it can experienceseveral
attacks
 because the multimedia object can be digitally processed. The attacks can be unintentional (in the case of images, low pass filtering or gamma correction or compression) or intentional (like cropping). Hence, thewatermark has to be very robust against all these possibleattacks. When the owner wants to check the watermarks in the possibly attacked and distorted multimedia object, s/he relieson the secret key that was used to embed the watermark. Usingthe secret key, the embedded watermark sequence can beextracted. This extracted watermark may or may not resemblethe original watermark, because the object might have beenattacked.Hence, to validate the existence of a watermark, either theoriginal object is used to compare and ascertain the watermark signal (
non-blind watermarking
), or a correlation measure isused to detect the strength of the watermark signal from theextracted watermark (
blind watermarking
). In correlation based detection, the original watermark sequence is comparedwith the extracted watermark sequence, and a statisticalcorrelation test is used to determine the existence of thewatermark.A.
 Requirements of Digital Watermarking
 There are three main requirements of digitalwatermarking. They are
transparency
,
robustness
and
capacity
.Transparency or Fidelity, The digital watermark shouldnot affect the quality of the original image after it iswatermarked. Cox et al. (2002) defines transparency or fidelityas ‘perceptual similarity between the original and thewatermarked versions of the cover work’ [1]. Watermarkingshould not introduce visible distortions because if suchdistortions are introduced it reduces the commercial value of the image.
241http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011
Robustness, Cox et al. (2002) defines robustness as the‘ability to detect the watermark after common signal processing operations’ [1]. Watermarks could be removedintentionally or unintentionally by simple image processingoperations like contrast or brightness enhancement, gammacorrection etc. Hence watermarks should be robust against avariety of such attacks into four basic categories, attacks thattry to remove watermarks totally, attacks that try to removethe synchronization between the embedder and the detector,cryptographic attacks and protocol attacks.Capacity or Data Payload, Cox et al. (2002) definecapacity or data payload as ‘the number of bits a watermark encodes within a unit of time or work’ [1]. This propertydescribes how much data should be embedded as a watermark to successfully detect during extraction. Watermark should beable to carry enough information to represent the uniquenessof the image. Different applications have different payloadrequirements [1].Security, according to Kerckhoff’s principle the securityof a cryptosystem depends on the secrecy of the key and noton the cryptographic algorithm. Same rule applies to water-marking algorithms, i.e. the watermarking algorithms must be public but watermark embedding should base on a secret key[2].To prevent image manipulations and fraudulent use of modi
ed images, the watermark should survive modi
cationsintroduced by random noise or compression, but should not bedetectable from non-authentic regions of the image. Theoriginal image cannot be used by the watermark detect or toverify the authenticity of the image. In this paper, weinvestigate the application of a recently developedquantization based watermarking scheme to imageauthentication. The two proposed watermarking techniquesallow reliable blind watermark detection from a small number of pixels, and thus enable the detection of local modi
cationsto the image content.II. HISTOGRAM EQUAL AREA DIVISIONQUANTIZATION TECHNIQUEThe technique calculates the quantization levels using amethod that is dependent on the image content (hence theword "adaptive") and then round off the pixels values to thenearest quantization level. In this way, the number of transmitted values is reduced. The quantization scheme provides a wide range of compression ratios (CRs) with a veryslight degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).HEAD is a quantization technique in which thetransmitted values are reduced by mapping the values of image pixels to a finite number of quantization levels.
The HEAD quantization procedure can be listed as follows:
1.
 
The area under the histogram of the image pixels is dividedinto a number of vertical slices with equal areas. Thus eachslice has a width that is inversely proportional to its height.The number of these slices is equal to the number of quantization levels.2.
 
On the horizontal axis of the sliced histogram, each slicehas start and end points. The midpoint value (on the width)of each slice is considered as a quantization level.3.
 
In this way, we get a non-uniform quantization in whichthe density of the quantization levels increases in proportion to the probability of occurrence of the pixelvalue.4.
 
All the pixel values that lie within the width of a slice aremapped to the quantization level that is represented by themidpoint of this slice.The resultant compression ratio and signal-to-noise ratiovary depending on the chosen number of quantization levels.This technique is irreversible, i.e. the quantized valuescan’t be converted back to their original values leading toinformation loss.III. DCT PROPOSED WATERMARKING TECHNIQUEThe first proposed watermarking scheme is a blindquantization based scheme [4]. A block diagram detailing itssteps is shown in Fig. 1. The input
 N 
*
 M 
image; an imageassumed to be a matrix has length of 
 N 
rows and width of 
 M 
 columns, is first converted into single vector by concatenatingsuccessive rows beside each other to form a long row thatcontains all the image pixels using matrix to vector converter.This vector is exposed to DCT [5]-[7] to transform the imagefrom spatial domain into frequency domain in which energy of the image information is concentrated in a few number of coefficients. The output of the DCT process is a vector thathas the same length of the image)number of pixels in theimage), but with many values approximated to zeros. After applying the DCT the output coefficients are arranged in adescending order according to the pixels probabilities. Theoutput vector of the DCT is now ready to be processed by thehistogram equal area quantization technique to choose theappropriate values used in the watermark embedding process,quantization levels. The watermarked coefficients vector isreshaped and returned back to the spatial domain using IDCT.
Figure 1. The first proposed image watermarking scheme.
 A. Watermark Embedding
The steps of watermark embedding can be summarized asfollows:
242http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011
1.
 
The host image is transformed into the DCT domain; thetransformed coefficients are watermarked using HEADquantization using 4 quantization levels t
0
, t
1
, t
2
, and t
3
.2.
 
A binary watermark of the same size as the image of interest is created using a secret key, which is a seed of arandom number generator.3.
 
Each
sij
w
of the selected DCT Coefficients is quantized.The quantization process can be summarized as follows:If 
ij
 x
= 1 and
sij
w
> 0, then
sij
w
'
= t2,If 
ij
 x
= 0 and
sij
w
> 0, then
sij
w
'
= t1,If 
ij
 x
= 1 and
sij
w
< 0, then
sij
w
'
= -t
3
,If 
ij
 x
= 0 and
sij
w
< 0, then
sij
w
'
= -t
0
. (1)Where
ij
 x
the watermark is bit corresponding to
sij
w
, and
sij
w
'
 is the watermarked coefficient. After all the selectedcoefficients are quantized, the inverse discrete cosinetransform (IDCT) is applied and the watermarked image isobtained.
 
 B. Watermark Detection
1.
 
The possibly corrupted watermarked image is transformedinto the DCT domain as in the embedding process.2.
 
The extraction is performed on the coefficients.3.
 
All the coefficients of magnitude equal to t
1
, t
2,
- t
3
and - t
0
 are selected; these are denoted
sij
w
'
.The watermark bitsare extracted from each of the selected DCT coefficientswith Eq.2. Fig. 2 illustrates the watermark detection process.
Figure 2. Watermark detection in the proposed scheme.
If 
sij
w
'
= t
2
or t
3
, then the recovered watermark bit is a 1.If 
sij
w
'
= t
0
or t
1
, then the recovered watermark bit is a 0(2)
4.
 
The recovered watermark is then correlated with theoriginal watermark in the watermark file, obtained via thesecret key. This allows a confidence measure to beascertained for the presence or absence of a watermark inan image.
 
IV. DWT WATERMARKING TECHNIQUEDugad et al. presented a blind additive watermarkingscheme operating in the wavelet domain [8]. Three-levelwavelet decomposition with Daubechies 8-tap filters was used. No watermark was inserted into the low-pass sub-band. Unlikesome non-blind watermarking schemes [9][10], this schemeallows a watermark to be detected without access to theoriginal image. It performs an implicit visual masking as onlywavelet coefficients with large magnitude are selected for watermark insertion. These coefficients correspond to regionsof texture and edges in an image. This scheme makes itdifficult for a human viewer to perceive any degradation in thewatermarked image. Also, because wavelet coefficients of large magnitude are perceptually significant, it is difficult toremove the watermark without severely distorting thewatermarked image. The most novel aspect of this scheme wasthe introduction of a watermark consisting of pseudorandomreal numbers. Since watermark detection typically consists of a process of correlation estimation, in which the watermark coefficients are placed in the image, changes in the location of the watermarked coefficients are unacceptable. Thewatermarking scheme proposed by Dugad et al. is based onadding the watermark in selected coefficients with significantenergy in the transform domain in order to ensure the non-erasability of the watermark. This scheme has overcome the problem of “order sensitivity”.Unfortunately, this scheme has also some disadvantages. Itembeds the watermark in an additive fashion. It is known that blind detectors for additive watermarking schemes mustcorrelate the possibly watermarked image coefficients with theknown watermark in order to determine if the image has or hasnot been marked. Thus, the image itself must be treated asnoise, which makes the detection of the watermark exceedingly difficult [8]. In order to overcome this problem, itis necessary to correlate a very large number of coefficients,which in turn requires the watermark to be embedded intoseveral image coefficients at the insertion stage. As a result,the degradation in the watermarked image increases. Another drawback is that the detector can only tell if the watermark is present or not. It cannot recover the actual watermark.The scheme in [11] is another example of wavelet-basedwatermarking schemes. A noise-like Gaussian sequence isused as a watermark. To embed the watermark robustly andimperceptibly, watermark components are added to thesignificant coefficients of each selected sub-band byconsidering the human visual system (HVS) characteristics.Some small modifications are performed to improve the HVSmodel. The host image is needed in the watermark extraction procedure.V. PROPOSED DWT WATERMARKING TECHNIQUEDiscrete wavelet transform is a technique using which a2D image can be transferred from spatial domain to frequencydomain. The input
 N 
*
 M 
image; an image assumed to be amatrix has length of 
 N 
rows and width of 
 M 
columns, isexposed to wavelet transform. After one level DWT an image
 I 
is decomposed into four subbands LL, HL, LH, and HH. LLis called the approximate band and it contains most of the
243http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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