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Performance Evaluation of Improved Routing Algorithm for Irregular Network-on-Chip

Performance Evaluation of Improved Routing Algorithm for Irregular Network-on-Chip

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Published by ijcsis
In this paper, a new wormhole-switched routing algorithm for irregular 2-dimensional (2-D) mesh interconnection Network-on-Chip is proposed, where not only no virtual channel is used for routing but also no virtual channel is used to pass oversized nodes (ONs). We also improve message passing parameters of ONs as well as comparing simulation results of our algorithm and several state of art algorithms. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm, i-xy (improved/irregular-xy), has a higher saturation point in comparison with extended-xy and OAPR algorithms. Furthermore, it has less blocked messages and higher routed/switched messages in the network. Moreover, the network uses i-xy has higher utilization compared to other networks which uses e-xy and OAPR from 35 percent to 100 percent, for the irregular 2-D mesh NoC.
In this paper, a new wormhole-switched routing algorithm for irregular 2-dimensional (2-D) mesh interconnection Network-on-Chip is proposed, where not only no virtual channel is used for routing but also no virtual channel is used to pass oversized nodes (ONs). We also improve message passing parameters of ONs as well as comparing simulation results of our algorithm and several state of art algorithms. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm, i-xy (improved/irregular-xy), has a higher saturation point in comparison with extended-xy and OAPR algorithms. Furthermore, it has less blocked messages and higher routed/switched messages in the network. Moreover, the network uses i-xy has higher utilization compared to other networks which uses e-xy and OAPR from 35 percent to 100 percent, for the irregular 2-D mesh NoC.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
9
, No.
2
, 201
1
Performance Evaluation of Improved RoutingAlgorithm for Irregular Network-on-Chip
Ladan Momeni
Department of Computer EngineeringScience and Research Branch, Azad University of AhvazAhvaz, Iranmomeni@iua-asrc.ac.ir 
Arshin Rezazadeh, Mahmood Fathy
Department of Computer EngineeringIran University of Science and TechnologyTehran, Iran{mahfathy@, rezazadeh@comp.}iust.ac.ir  
Abstract 
In this paper, a new wormhole-switched routingalgorithm for irregular 2-dimensional (2-D) mesh interconnectionNetwork-on-Chip is proposed, where not only no virtual channelis used for routing but also no virtual channel is used to passoversized nodes (ONs). We also improve message passingparameters of ONs as well as comparing simulation results of ouralgorithm and several state of art algorithms. Simulation resultsshow that our proposed algorithm, i-xy (improved/irregular-xy),has a higher saturation point in comparison with extended-xyand OAPR algorithms. Furthermore, it has less blocked messagesand higher routed/switched messages in the network. Moreover,the network uses i-xy has higher utilization compared to othernetworks which uses e-xy and OAPR from 35 percent to 100percent, for the irregular 2-D mesh NoC.
Keywords-Network-on-Chip, performance, wormhole switching,irregular 2-D mesh, routing, utilization
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 As technology scales, Systems-on-Chips (SoCs) arebecoming increasingly complex and heterogeneous. One of themost important key issues that characterize such SoCs is theseamless mixing of numerous Intellectual Property (IP) coresperforming different functions and operating at different clock frequencies. In just the last few years, Network-on-Chip (NoC)has emerged as a leading paradigm for the synthesis of multi-core SoCs [1]. The routing algorithm used in theinterconnection communication NoC is the most crucial aspectthat distinguishes various proposed NoC architectures [2], [3].However, the use of VCs introduces some overhead in terms of both additional resources and mechanisms for their management [4].Each IP core has two segments to operate incommunication and computation modes separately [5]. On-chippacket switched interconnection architectures, called as NoCs,have been proposed as a solution for the communicationchallenges in these networks [6]. NoCs relate closely tointerconnection networks for high-performance parallelcomputers with multiple processors, in which each processor isan individual chip.A NoC is a group of routers and switches that are connectedto each other on a point to point short link to provide acommunication backbone of the IP cores of a SoC. The mostcommon template that proposed for the communication of NoCis a 2-D mesh network topology where each resource isconnected with a router [7]. In these networks, source nodes(an IP-Core), generate packets that include headers as well asdata, then routers transfer them through connected links todestination nodes [8].The wormhole (WH) switching technique proposed byDally and Seitz [9] has been widely used in theinterconnections such as [10], [11], [12], [15] and [16]. In theWH technique, a packet is divided into a series of fixed-sizeparts of data, called flits. Wormhole routing requires the leastbuffering (flits instead of packets) and allows low-latencycommunication. To avoid deadlocks among messages, multiplevirtual channels (VC) are simulated on each physical link [12].Each unidirectional virtual channel is realized by anindependently managed pair of message buffers [13].This paper presents a new routing algorithm for irregular mesh networks by base that enhances a previously proposedtechnique. The primary distinction between the previousmethod and the method presented in this paper is passingmessages from ONs in the network. Simulation results showthat utilization of network by e-xy and OAPR algorithm isworse than the improved one, i-xy. We have been simulatedevery three algorithms for 5% and 10% of oversized nodeswith uniform and hotspot traffic. Results for all situations showthat our algorithm has higher utilization and can work in higher message injection rates, with higher saturation point.The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In section IIsome deterministic-based routing algorithms are discussed.Then the new i-xy irregular routing algorithm is explainedfollowed by Section III in which our experimental results arediscussed. Finally, Section IV summarizes and concludes thework.II.
 
I
RREGULAR 
OUTING
 Routing is the act of passing on data from one node toanother in a given scheme [11]. Currently, most of theproposed algorithms for routing in NoCs are based upondeterministic routing algorithms which in the case of oversizednodes, cannot route packets. Since adaptive algorithms are verycomplex for Network-on-Chips, a flexible deterministicalgorithm is a suitable one [14]. Deterministic routing
253 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
9
, No.
2
, 201
1
 
algorithms establish the path as a function of the destinationaddress, always applying the same path between every pair of nodes. This routing algorithm is known as dimension-order routing (x-y routing). This routing algorithm routes packets bycrossing dimensions in strictly increasing (or decreasing) order,reducing to zero the offset in one dimension before routing inthe next one [13]. To avoid deadlocks among messages,multiple virtual channels (VC) are simulated on each physicalchannel [12]. But in this paper, we use no VCs in proposedalgorithm and introduced a deadlock and live lock-freeirregular routing algorithm.Many algorithms have been suggested to operate in faultyconditions without deadlock and livelock. We can modify thesealgorithms to use in irregular interconnection networks. Someof these algorithms like [10], [11], [12], [15] and [16] are basedon deterministic algorithms. In [15], Wu proposed adeterministic algorithm. This proposed algorithm uses odd-even turn model to pass the block faults. Also, the algorithmproposed by Lin et al. [16] uses above mentioned method.Since our proposed algorithm is similar to these algorithms(uses no virtual channel), in the next section, we are going todescribe how these deterministic algorithms work and how wehave improved them. The main idea describes in the rest of thissection.
A.
 
Extended-XY Routing Algorithm
The algorithm presented by Wu [15], extended-xy, uses noVCs by implementing odd-even turn model which is discussedin [17]. Such an algorithm is able to pass faulty ring andorthogonal faulty blocks. This algorithm consists two phases;in phase 1, the offset along the x dimension is reduced to zeroand, in phase 2, the offset along the y dimension is reduced tozero [15].This algorithm has two modes, normal and abnormal mode.The extended-xy routing follows the regular x-y routing (andthe packet is in a “normal” mode) until the packet reaches aboundary node of a faulty block. At that point, the packet isrouted around the block (and the packet is in an “abnormal”mode) clockwise or counterclockwise based on certain rules:Unlike routing in a fault-free routing, the fault-tolerant routingprotocol has to prepare for “unforeseen” situations: a faultyblock encountered during the routing process. This is done bythree means: 1) the packet should reside in an even columnwhen reaching a north or south boundary node of the routingblock in phase 1. 2) In phase 1, the packet should be routedaround the west side since, once the packet is east-bound, itcannot be changed to west-bound later. 3) The two boundarylines, one even and one odd, offer just enough flexibility for thepacket to make turns for all situations.In phase 2, to route around the routing block, odd columns(even columns) are used to perform routing along the ydimension when the packet is east-bound (west-bound). Thepacket is routed around the routing block either clockwise or counterclockwise in phase 2. Note that during the normal modeof routing the packet along the x or y dimension, no 180degrees turn is allowed. For example, the positive x directioncannot be changed to the negative x direction [15]. Additionalinformation and introduced algorithm about extended-xyalgorithm can be found in [15].
B.
 
OAPR Routing Algorithm
The algorithm presented by S.Y. Lin et al. [16], OAPR,described as follows:1) Avoid routing paths along boundaries of ONs. In theenvironment of faulty meshes, we can only know theinformation of faulty blocks in real-time. However, thelocations of ONs are known in advance. Therefore, the OAPR can avoid routing paths along boundaries of ONs and reducethe traffic loads around ONs.2) Support f-rings and f-chains for placements of ONs. TheOAPR solves the drawbacks of the e-xy and uses the odd-eventurn model to avoid deadlock systematically. However, the e-xy cannot support ONs placed at boundaries of irregular meshes. In order to solve this problem, the OAPR applies theconcepts of f-rings and f-chains [12]. With this feature, theOAPR can work correctly if ONs are placed at the boundariesof irregular meshes. Additional information and introducedalgorithm about extended-xy algorithm can be found in [16].
C.
 
Improved-XY Routing Algorithm
This algorithm is based on if-cube2 [10], [11], and similar to extended-xy [15], OAPR algorithm [16] and odd-even turnmodel [17] uses no virtual channel. Like extended-xyalgorithm, able to pass ring blocks of oversized nodes and alsochain blocks that not considered in extended-xy routing.Moreover, when a network uses OAPR algorithm, all ONsvertically overlapping must be aligned on the east edge, but inimproved-xy this constraint has been removed. Like [11] eachmessage is injected into the network as a row message and itsdirection is set to null until it reaches to the column of thedestination node. Then it would be changed as a columnmessage to reach the destination. A column message could notchange its path as a row message, unless it encounters withoversized region. In such a situation, a column message couldchange its direction into clockwise or counter-clockwise. First,each message should be checked if it has reached to destinationnode. Else, if this message is a row message and has justreached to the column of destination node, it would be changedas a column message.For regular meshes, the e-cube provides deadlock-freeshortest path routing. At each node during the routing of amessage, the e-cube specifies the next hop to be taken by themessage. The message is said to be blocked by an oversizednode, if its e-cube hop is on an oversized region. The proposedmodification uses no virtual channels and tolerates multipleoversized blocks.To route messages around rings or chains, messages areclassified into four types: East-to-West (EW), West-to-East(WE), North-to-South (NS), or South-to-North (NS). EW andWE messages are known as row messages and NS and SN ascolumn messages. A message is labeled as either an EW or WEmessage when it is generated, depending on its destination.Once a message completes its row hops, it becomes a NS or aSN message to travel along the column. Thus, row messages
254 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
9
, No.
2
, 201
1
can become column messages; however, NS and SN messagescannot change their types.Next, if a message encountered with an oversized region,the Set-Direction(M) procedure would be called to set thedirection of the message. The role of this procedure is to passoversized region by setting the direction of message toclockwise or counter-clockwise. Again, the direction of themessage will be set to null when it passed oversized region.While the direction of a message is null, e-cube algorithm usedto route messages and it can be use odd/even row/columns. Fig.1 show the using of odd and even row and columns when amessage is passing an oversized node.Using this modification of passing oversized regions,simulations are performed to evaluate the performance of theenhanced algorithms in comparison with the algorithmsproposed in prior work. Simulation results indicate animprovement in the utilization and switched/routed messagesfor different cases of ONs, and different traffics. Furthermore,the enhanced approach can handle higher message injectionrates (i.e., it has a higher saturation rate). In the following of this section, the proposed algorithm, Improved-XY(i-xy), andSet-Direction(M) procedures, have been given.
Figure 1. Usage of odd and even row or columns.
Algorithm Improved-XY(i-xy)
/* the current host of message M is
(s1, s0)
and its destination is
(d1 , d0)
.*/0. If
s1
d1
and
s0
d0
, consume M andreturn.1. If M is a row message and
s0
d0
 then change its type to NS, if
s1
d1
,or SN, if
s1
d1
.2. If the next e-cube hop is not blockedby an oversized node, then set thestatus of M to normal and set thedirection of M to null.3. Otherwise, set the status of M bySet-Direction(M).4. If the direction of M is null, thenuse its x-y hop,5. Otherwise, route M on the oversizednode according to the specifieddirection.
Procedure Set-Direction(M)
0. If M is a column message and itsdirection is null, then set
(l1, l0)
 (s1, s0)
.1. If the direction of M
≠ 
null and thecurrent node is an end node then reversethe direction of M and return.2. If M is a column message and
s0
≠ 
l0
,then return.3. If M is a column message and
s1
≠ 
l1
,
s0
l0
, then set its direction to null.4. If the next e-cube hop of M is notfaulty, set its direction to null andreturn.5. If direction of M is not null, thenreturn.6. If M is a WE message, set itsdirection to6.1 clockwise if
s1
d1
, or6.2 counter-clockwise if
s1
d1
, or6.3 either direction if
s1
d1
.7. If M is an EW message, set itsdirection to7.1 clockwise if
s1
d1
, or7.2 counter-clockwise if
s1
d1
, or7.3 either direction if
s1
d1
.8. If M is an NS message, set itsdirection to clockwise, if the currentnode is not located on the EAST boundaryof 2D meshes, or counter-clockwise,otherwise, and set
(l1 , l0)
(s1 ,s0)
.9. If M is an SN message, set itsdirection to counter-clockwise, if thecurrent node is not located on the EASTboundary of 2D meshes, or clockwise,otherwise, and set
(l1 , l0)
(s1 ,s0)
.
255 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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