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bat sizing ups

bat sizing ups

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Published by: hiremathvijay on Mar 14, 2011
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04/03/2013

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This article looks at the sizing of batteries for stationary applications (i.e. they don'tmove). Batteries are used in many applications such as AC and DC uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems, solar power systems, telecommunications, emergency lighting,etc. Whatever the application, batteries are seen as a mature, proven technology for storing electrical energy. In addition to storage, batteries are also used as a means for providing voltage support for weak power systems (e.g. at the end of small, longtransmission lines).
Why do the calculation?
Sizing a stationary battery is important to ensure that the loads being supplied or thepower system being supported are adequately catered for by the battery for the period of time (i.e. autonomy) for which it is designed. Improper battery sizing can lead to poor autonomy times, permanent damage to battery cells from over-discharge, low loadvoltages, etc.
When to do the calculation?
The calculation can typically be started when the following information is known:
Battery loads that need to be supported
Nominal battery voltage
Autonomy time(s)
Calculation Methodology
The calculation is based on a mixture of normal industry practice and technical standardsIEEE Std 485 (1997, R2003)"Recommended Practice for Sizing Lead-Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications" andIEEE Std 1115 (2000, R2005)"Recommended Practice for Sizing Nickel-Cadmium Batteries for Stationary Applications". The calculation is basedon the ampere-hour method for sizing battery capacity (rather than sizing by positiveplates).The focus of this calculation is on standard lead-acid or nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries,so please consult specific supplier information for other types of batteries (e.g. lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, etc). Note also that the design of the battery charger is beyondthe scope of this calculation.There are five main steps in this calculation:
 
1) Collect the loads that the battery needs to support2) Construct a load profile and calculate the design energy (VAh)3) Select the battery type and determine the characteristics of the cell4) Select the number of battery cells to be connected in series5) Calculate the required Ampere-hour (Ah) capacity of the battery
Step 1: Collect the battery loads
The first step is to determine the loads that the battery will be supporting. This is largelyspecific to the application of the battery, for example an AC UPS Systemor aSolar  Power System.
Step 2: Construct the Load Profile
Refer to theLoad Profile Calculation for details on how to construct a load profile and calculate the design energy, , in VAh.The autonomy time is often specified by the Client (i.e. in their standards). Alternatively,IEEE 446, "IEEE Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby Power Systems for Industrial and Commercial Applications" has some guidance (particularly Table 3-2) for autonomy times. Note that IEEE 485 and IEEE 1115 refer to the load profile as the "dutycycle".
Step 3: Select Battery Type
The next step is to select the battery type (e.g. sealed lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, etc).The selection process is not covered in detail here, but the following factors should betaken into account (as suggested by IEEE):
Physical characteristics, e.g. dimensions, weight, container material, intercell connections, terminals
application design life and expected life of cell
Frequency and depth of discharge
Ambient temperature
Charging characteristics
Maintenance requirements
Ventilation requirements
Cell orientation requirements (sealed lead-acid and NiCd)
Seismic factors (shock and vibration)Next, find the characteristics of the battery cells, typically from supplier data sheets. Thecharacteristics that should be collected include:
Battery cell capacities (Ah)
Cell temperature
 
Electrolyte density at full charge (for lead-acid batteries)
Cell float voltage
Cell end-of-discharge voltage (EODV).Battery manufacturers will often quote battery Ah capacities based on a number of different EODVs. For lead-acid batteries, the selection of an EODV is largely based onan EODV that prevents damage of the cell through over-discharge (from over-expansionof the cell plates). Typically, 1.75V to 1.8V per cell is used when discharging over longer than 1 hour. For short discharge durations (i.e. <15 minutes), lower EODVs of around1.67V per cell may be used without damaging the cell.Nickel-Cadmium (NiCd) don't suffer from damaged cells due to over-discharge. TypicalEODVs for Ni-Cd batteries are 1.0V to 1.14V per cell.
Step 4: Number of Cells in Series
The most common number of cells for a specific voltage rating is shown below:
RatedVoltageLead-AcidNi-Cd
12V 6 9-1024V 12 18-2048V 24 36-40125V 60 92-100250V 120 184-200However, the number of cells in a battery can also be calculated to more accurately matchthe tolerances of the load. The number of battery cells required to be connected in seriesmust fall between the two following limits:(1)(2)where is the maximum number of battery cellsis the minimum number of battery cells

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