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Published by kailashdhirwani
Relational database managment covers all topic of rdbms(almost).data design and structure,,data languages
Relational database managment covers all topic of rdbms(almost).data design and structure,,data languages

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Published by: kailashdhirwani on Mar 14, 2011
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preperedby kailash dhirwani (
WHAT IS DBMS ?- To be able to carry out operations like insertion, deletion and retrieval, the databaseneeds to be managed by a substantial piece of software; this software is usually called aDatabase Management System(DBMS).- A DBMS is usually a very large software package that enables many different tasksincluding the provision of facilities to enable the user to access and modify information inthe database.- Data Description Languages (DDL) and Data Manipulation Languages (DML) areneeded for manipulating and retrieving data stored in the DBMS. These languages arecalled respectively.An architecture for database systems, called the three-schema architecture was proposedto help achieve and visualize the important characteristics of the database approach.
What is a
A collection of related pieces of data:Representing/capturing the information about a real-world
enterprise or part of an enterprise.Collected and maintained to serve specific data management
needs of the enterprise.Activities of the enterprise are supported by the
andcontinually update the
:Data about students, faculty, courses, research-laboratories, course registration/enrollment etc.Reflects the state of affairs of the academic aspects of theuniversity.
: To keep an accurate track of the academicactivities of the university.
A Relational Database Management System is a program that lets you create,update and administrator a relational database. The primary rule for
isthat the Data should be stored in the form of tables.Most of the RDBMS’s use the Structures Query Language to access the database.When a database undergoes NORMALISATION it is called as a
THE THREE-SCHEMA ARCHITECTURE:The goal of the three-schema architecture is to separate the user applications and thephysical database. In this architecture, schemas can be defined at 3 levels :1. Internal level or Internal schema : Describes the physical storage structure of thedatabase. The internal schema uses a physical data model and describes the completedetails of data storage and access paths for the database.2. Conceptual level or Conceptual schema : Describes the structure of the whole databasefor a community of users. It hides the details of physical storage structures andconcentrates on describing entities, data types, relationships, user operations, andconstraints. Implementation data model can be used at this level.3. External level or External schema : It includes a number of external schemas or user views. Each external schema describes the part of the database that a particular user isinterested in and hides the rest of the database from user. Implementation data model canbe used at this level.2
What is the purpose of the mappings in the
? Is the useror the DBMS responsible for using the mappings?
The purpose of the mappings in the
is to describe howaschema at a higher level is derived from a schema at a lower level. The DBMS, not theuser, is responsible for using the mappings
IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER :Data and meta-data– three schemas are only meta-data(descriptions of data).– data actually exists only at the physical level.Mapping– DBMS must transform a request specified on an external schema into a request againstthe conceptual schema, and then into the internal schema.– requires information in meta-data on how to accomplish the mapping among variouslevels.– overhead(time-consuming) leading to inefficiencies.– few DBMSs have implemented the full three-schema architecture.3

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