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FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING

FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING

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FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING REVIEW NOTES FOR NLE AND NCLEX
FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING REVIEW NOTES FOR NLE AND NCLEX

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Published by: stuffednurse on Aug 26, 2008
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FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING
HISTORY OF NURSINGPERIODS OF NURSINGPERIODS OF NURSINGINTUITIVE NURSING/ PRIMITIVE NURSING/ INSTINCTIVE NURSING(Primitive times – 6
th
century)PRIMITIVE TIMES
- Women practice nursing because of low status in society.- Took care of children and sick members of the family.- Personalistic cause of disease.- Sickness is due to active intervention of:a. human – caused by witchcraft.b. non human – caused by ghosts.c. superhuman beings – caused by deities.- Superstitious and believes in magic.- Slave society “slave nurses”- Wet nursing, take care of babies/children of their masters- Women also practices midwifery.- Masters/healers are the people who are responsible in decision making when it comes to health.
6
th
CENTURY
- Founding of religious orders.
3 Attributes of Nurses
1. Self denial2. Devotion to hard work and duty.3. With spiritual calling.
Main Guiding Principles
1. “Love thy neighbor as thy self”.2. Parable of the Good Samaritan.-
Beneficence
(doing good to others).
2 Types of Beneficence
1. Ordinary – doing good to others.2. Ideal – entails sacrifice.
APPRENTICE NURSING PERIOD(6
th
Century – 18
th
Century)6
TH
CENTURY
- founding of religious orders.- women practiced nursing.- Daughters of Charity/Sisters of Charity founded by St. Vincent de Paul and Augustinian Sisters.
CRUSADES
- Men practiced nursing.- Knights of St. Lazarusa. established a standard among hospitals in Europe.b. took care of clients with skin problems like leprosy.- Knights of St. John of Jerusalema. also known as
Knights Hospitalers
.b. founded hospitals.
18
TH
CENTURY1836
- Theodore Fleidner reestablished order of Deaconesses.- Founded school of nursing in Kaisserwerth, Germany where Florence Nightingale was the most knownstudent.
1854-1856 (CRIMEAN WAR)
- Florence Nightingale was known as the
Lady with a Lamp
.- Compiled the “Notes on Nursing: What it is and What is not” and became the
first nurse theorist
.
 
EDUCATIONAL NURSING PERIOD(18
th
Century – 20
th
Century)18
TH
CENTURY
- Florence Nightingale established a nursing school in St. Thomas Hospital in London which adopted the
Nightingale System
.- Made Florence Nightingale the
mother of modern nursing
.
Philosophy of Nightingale System
1. Government funds should be allotted to nursing education.- earned her the title of being the
first nurse political activist
.2. Training schools of nursing should be in close affiliation.3. Professional nurses should train nurses.4. Nursing students should be provided with residence near their training hospitals.- written orders of doctors insisted.- nurses should go with doctors during rounds.
LATE 20
TH
CENTURY
- Specialization in medicine.- Conceptualization of the role of clinical nurse specialist.- Increase clinical content of education (1900’s).
CONTEMPORARY PERIOD(21
st
Century)
- Globalization of nursing.- Period after world war II.- Borderless nursing or transcultural nursing.- Professionalization of nursing.
PROFESSIONPROFESSION 
 – a special calling that requires special, skills, knowledge and attitudes.
7 CRITICAL ATTRIBUTES OF PROFESSION
1.
Special
ized education2.
C
ode of ethics3.
R
esearch of orientation4.
A
utonomy5.
B
ody of knowledge6.
S
ervice orientation7.
P
rofessional
O
rganization
SOCIALIZATION
– process where a person learns the ways and means or skills, knowledge, attitudes of thegroup to which he belongs to.
BENNER LEVEL OF PROFICIENCY
1.
Novice
– student nurse entering a clinical setting where he has no experience at all.2.
Advance
– nurse who demonstrates a marginally acceptable performance: depends on rules and maxims.3.
Competent
– 2 – 3 years experience demonstrates organizational ability but lacks speed and flexibility of aproficient nurse.4.
Proficient
– concerned with long term goals, performance is fluid and flexible compared to competent nurse- has a wholistic view of the client.5.
Expert
– no longer relies on maxims, performance is highly proficient, fluid flexible and has a wholistic view.- has high perceptual acuity or a clinical eye.
DIMENSIONS OF NURSING
1. Nursing Practice2. Nursing Education3. Nursing Research
FOCUS OF NURSING
1. Health Promotion – improve clients well being.2. Health Maintenance3. Health Instauration – help clients with illness to recover.4. Care of the Dying – clients with cancer.
ROLE
 – patterns of behavior expected of person assuming a status/position in society or a group.
TASK
 – specific activities required of a person.
 
PATIENTCLIENT
-
Has a disease
-
Very dependent on healthprofessional
-
Not necessarily sick
-
Health promotion act till diseaseprevention
-
Client collaborates with healthprofessionalLEVELS OF CLIENTELE
1. Individual2. Family3. Community4. Population Groups – special groups with special needs attributed to the following:a. Cultural characteristics – indigenous people.b. Developmental stagec. Occupation – commercial sex workers are more prone to STD’s.
ROLES OF NURSE1. Nurse Educator 
- 3 domains of learninga. Cognitive – knowledge aspectb. Psychomotor – skillsc. Affective – interest/emotion
2. Caregiver 
- Attends to physical/emotional (mostly physical) needs of the client.
3. Nurses as Leader 
- Process of influencing people to work towards the attainment of goals.
4. Manager 
- Organizational goals/works within an organization.
PROCESS OF MANAGEMENT
a.Planning (resources)b.Organizing (delegating tasks/tasking)c.Directing (motivating people)d.Controlling – evaluation of output against standards.
5. Client advocate
– protects rights of clients.
6. Change agent
– improvement in organization.
7. Researcher 
– research process
8. Facilitator THEORIESTHEORIES 
 – relationship between concepts
4 CONCEPTS OF NURSING THEORIES
1. Individual/Person2. Nursing3. Health4. Environment

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