The problem of plane waves propagating in air represents an exampleof
unguided wave propagation
. Transmission lines and waveguides offer an alternative way of transmitting signals in the form of
. Transmission lines are typically electrically large (severalwavelengths) such that we cannot accurately describe the voltages andcurrents along the transmission line using a simple
equivalent circuit. We must use a
equivalent circuitwhich describes each short segment of the transmission line by a lumped-element equivalent circuit.Consider a simple uniform two-wire transmission line with itsconductors parallel to the
-axis as shown below.
Uniform transmission line
- conductors and insulating mediummaintain the same cross-sectional geometry along the entiretransmission line.The equivalent circuit of a short segment
of the two-wire transmissionline may be represented by simple lumped-element equivalent circuit.