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ece4333notes2

# ece4333notes2

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03/14/2011

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Transmission Lines
The problem of plane waves propagating in air represents an exampleof
unguided wave propagation
. Transmission lines and waveguides offer an alternative way of transmitting signals in the form of
guided wavepropagation
. Transmission lines are typically electrically large (severalwavelengths) such that we cannot accurately describe the voltages andcurrents along the transmission line using a simple
lumped-element
equivalent circuit. We must use a
distributed-element
equivalent circuitwhich describes each short segment of the transmission line by a lumped-element equivalent circuit.Consider a simple uniform two-wire transmission line with itsconductors parallel to the
-axis as shown below.
Uniform transmission line
- conductors and insulating mediummaintain the same cross-sectional geometry along the entiretransmission line.The equivalent circuit of a short segment
Ä
of the two-wire transmissionline may be represented by simple lumped-element equivalent circuit.

R
= series resistance per unit length (
Ù
/m) of the transmission lineconductors.
L
= series inductance per unit length (H/m) of the transmission lineconductors (internal plus external inductance).
G
= shunt conductance per unit length (S/m) of the media betweenthe transmission line conductors.
= shunt capacitance per unit length (F/m) of the transmission lineconductors.We may relate the values of voltage and current at
and
z+
Ä
bywriting KVL and KCL equations for the equivalent circuit.KVLKCL

Grouping the voltage and current terms and dividing by
Ä
givesTaking the limit as
Ä

6
0, the terms on the right hand side of the equationsabove become partial derivatives with respect to
which givesTime-domaintransmission lineequations(coupled PDE’s)For time-harmonic signals, the instantaneous voltage and current may bedefined in terms of phasors such thatThe derivatives of the voltage and current with respect to time yield
j
ù
times the respective phasor which givesFrequency-domain(phasor) transmissionline equations(coupled DE’s)Note the similarity in the functional form of the time- and frequency-domain transmission line equations to the respective source-free Maxwell’sequations (curl equations). Even though these equations were derivedwithout any consideration of the electromagnetic fields associated with thetransmission line, remember that circuit theory is based on Maxwell’sequations.