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PEDIA

PEDIA

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Published by stuffednurse
PEDIATRIC NURSING REVIEW NOTES
PEDIATRIC NURSING REVIEW NOTES

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Published by: stuffednurse on Aug 26, 2008
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12/18/2012

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PEDIATRIC NURSING
I. A. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Definition of Terms:
Growth
– increase in physical size of a structure or whole quantitative structure
2 Parameters of Growth
1.
Weight
- Most sensitive especially in low birth weight- Weight doubles by 6 months- Triples by 1 year- Quadruples by 2 ½ year2.
Height
- Increase by 1 inch per month during first 6 months- And ½ inch per month from 7 – 12 months
Development
– increase in the skills or capacity to function qualitative change
How to Measure Development?
1. by simply observing a child doing specific task2. by noting parent’s description of the child’s progress3. by DDST (Denver Developmental Screening Test), MMDST (Metro ManilaDevelopmental Screening Test)
4 Main Rated Categories
1.
Language
– for communication2.
Personal Social
3.
Fine Motor Adaptive
– pre tensile ability (ability to use hand movement)4.
Gross Motor Skills
– ability to use large body movement
Maturation
– synonymous with development (readiness)
Cognitive Development
– is the ability to learn and understand from experience, toacquire and retain knowledge to respond to a new situation and to solve problems
I. B.
 
BASIC DIVISION OF LIFE
1.
Pre-Natal
– begins at conception and ends at birth2.
Period of Infancy
- Neonatal (first 28 days or first 4 weeks)- Formal Infancy (from 29
th
day to 1 year)3.
Early Childhood
- Toddler (1 – 3 years)- Pre-School (4 – 6 years)4.
Middle Childhood
– school age 7 – 12 years5.
Period of Adolescent
 - Pre-Adolescent/Late childhood (11 – 13 years)- Adolescent (12 – 21 years)
 
I. C. PRINCIPLE OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT1. Growth and Development is a continuous process that begins fromconception and ends with death.Principle:
womb to tomb
2. Not all parts of the body grow at the same time or at the same rate.Patterns of Growth and Development
1. Renal, digestive, circulatory, Musculo-skeletal (childhood)2.
Neurologic Tissue
- Grows rapidly during 1 – 2 years of life- Brain (achieve to its adult proportion by 5 years)- Central Nervous System- SC3.
Lymphatic System
- Lymph nodes, Spleen, Thymus- Grows rapidly during infancy and childhood (to provide protectionagainst infxn)- Tonsils is achieved in 5 years4.
Reproductive Organ
– grows rapidly during puberty
3. Each child is unique2 Primary factors affecting Growth and DevelopmentA. HeredityR
ace
I
ntelligence
S
ex
N
ationality
B. EnvironmentQ
uality of nutrition
S
ocio-Economic status
H
ealth
O
rdinal position in family
P
arent-Child relationship
4. Growth and Development occurs in a regular direction reflecting adefinite and predictable patterns or trends
A.
Directional Trends
occurs in a regular direction reflecting thedevelopment of neuromuscular functions: these apply to physical, mental,social and emotional developments and includes:a.
Cephalo - caudal
(head to tail)- It occurs along bodies’ long axis in which control over head, mouthand eye movements and precedes control over upper body torso andlegs.b.
Proximo – distal
(centro distal)- Progressing from the center of the body to the extremetiesc.
Symmetrical
-
 
Each side of the body develop on the same direction at the same timeat the same rate
 
d.
Mass – specific
(differentiation)- In which the child learns from simple operations before complexfunction or move from a broad general pattern of behavior to a morerefined pattern.B.
Sequential
– involves a predictable sequence of growth and developmentto which the child normally passes.a. Locomotionb. Language and Social skillsC.
Secular
– refers to the worldwide trend of maturing earlier and growinglarger as compared to succeeding generations.
5. Behavior is a most comprehensive indicator of developmental status6. Play is the universal language of a child7. A great deal of skill and behavior is leaned by practice8. There is an optimum time for initiation of experience or learning9. Neonatal reflexes must be lost first before development can proceed
 
Persistent Primitive Infantile Reflex (suspect Cerebral Palsy)
I. D.
 
THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENTDevelopment Tasks
is a skill or growth responsibility arising at a particular time inthe individual’s life. The successful achievement of which will provide a foundation forthe accomplishments of the future tasks.
THEORISTS1. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
an Austrian neurologist, Founder of psychoanalysis
PHASE OF PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORa. Oral Phase (0 – 18 months)
- Mouth is the site of gratification- Biting, crying or sucking for enjoyment and to release tension- Provide oral stimulation even the baby is NPO, offer pacifier- Never discourage thumb sucking
b. Anal Phase (18 months – 3 years)
- Anus- May show toilet training- Elimination, defecation- Principle of - Holding on (child wins, hard headed, anti social and stubborn)- Letting Go- Mother wins (kind, perfectionist, obedient, obsessive – compulsive)
c. Phallic Phase (4 – 6 years)
- Genitals- May show exhibitionism- Accept the child fondling his own genital area as the normal area of exploration- Answer the child’s question early 

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