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Useful_notes

# Useful_notes

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11/25/2013

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1.1 Introduction
The distribution of stress depends on:i) Stiffness of foundation.ii) Compressibility or stiffness of soil.iii) Loading conditions uniform or point.Stiffness of foundation
Type Comment Example
Flexible
Has no resistance todeformation and will bendinto a dish shapeEarth embankment/silo
Stiff
Some resistance to bending,forms a flatter dish shapeRaft foundation
Rigid
Will not bend, moves downuniformlySmall thick r.c. padfoundationContact pressures beneath foundations under uniform loadingWhere;q = applied stress :p = soil pressure

2
1.2 Determination of soil stresses due to applied loads
One of the main influences which affect the settlement of buildings or other civilengineering structures, is the manner in which soils “distribute” stresses withintheir mass.Granular soils (sands, gravels) use frictional resistance between the particles.Cohesive soils (clays, clayey silts) use cohesion (“stickiness”) between theparticles.In civil engineering, increases in vertical stresses are usually considered andBoussinesq in 1885 developed expressions for various loading conditions, basedon the following soil conditions:i)

Semi-infinite in both lateral and vertical directions.ii)

Isotropic (same in all directions)iii)

Homogeneous (uniform, i.e. not layered).iv)

Elastic – i.e. Obeying Hooke’s law of stress and strain.Vertical Point Load, QIncrease in vertical stress at point N,3QZ
3

∆σ
v
=2
π
.(r + z
2
)
5/2
Vertical Line Load, Q per metreIncrease in vertical stress at point N,2QZ
3

∆σ
v
=2
π
.(r + z
2
)
2

3
Uniform Load on an infinite stripIncrease in vertical stress at point N,q
∆σ
v
=
π

[
α
+sin
α
cos
α
(
α
+2
β
)
]
N.B. All angles are in radians
1.2.1 Bulbs of Pressure (or stress)
Lines or contours of
equal vertical stress increase
can be plotted from the aboveequations, because of their shape they are called bulbs.Practical significance:Site investigation should always assess the soil to at least the 0.2q contour.(often termed the “significant” depth for a foundation).Particularly important when assessing load test results on plates or “dummy” foundations that are
much smaller
than the proposed foundations.