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Table Of Contents

1.1Basic terms and concepts in vacuum tech- nology
1.2Atmospheric air
1.3Gas laws and models
1.3.1Continuum theory
1.3.2Kinetic gas theory
1.5Types of flow and conductance
1.5.1Types of flow
1.5.2Calculating conductance values
1.5.3Conductance for piping and orifices
1.5.4Conductance values for other elements
2.Vacuum generation
2.1.1Oscillation displacement vacuum pumps
2.1.1.1 Diaphragm pumps
2.1.2Liquid sealed rotary displacement pumps
2.1.2.1 Liquid ring pumps
2.1.2.2Oil sealed rotary displacement pumps
2.1.2.2.2Rotary plunger pumps (E Pumps)
2.1.2.2.3Trochoid pumps
2.1.2.2.4The gas ballast
2.1.3Dry compressing rotary displacement pumps
2.1.3.1 Roots pumps
2.1.3.2Claw pumps
2.1.4Accessories for oil-sealed rotary displacement pumps
2.1.5Condensers
2.1.6Fluid-entrainment pumps
2.1.6.1 (Oil) Diffusion pumps
2.1.6.2 Oil vapor ejector pumps
2.1.6.3Pump fluids
2.1.6.5Water jet pumps and steam ejectors
2.1.7Turbomolecular pumps
2.1.8Sorption pumps
2.1.8.1Adsorption pumps
2.1.8.2 Sublimation pumps
2.1.8.3Sputter-ion pumps
2.1.8.4Non evaporable getter pumps (NEG Pumps)
2.1.9Cryopumps
2.1.9.1 Types of cryopump
2.1.9.2The cold head and its operating principle (Fig. 2.66)
2.1.9.3 The refrigerator cryopump
2.1.9.4Bonding of gases to cold surfaces
2.1.9.5Pumping speed and position of the cryopanels
2.1.9.6Characteristic quantities of a cryopump
2.2Choice of pumping process
2.2.1Survey of the most usual pumping processes
2.2.2Pumping of gases (dry processes)
2.2.3Pumping of gases and vapors (wet processes)
2.2.4Drying processes
2.2.5Production of an oil-free (hydrocarbon-free) vacuum
2.2.6Ultrahigh vacuum working Techniques
2.3.1.1 Evacuation of a chamber in the rough vacuum region
2.3.1.2 Evacuation of a chamber in the high vacuum region
2.3.1.3Evacuation of a chamber in the medium vacuum region
2.3.2Determination of a suitable backing pump
2.3.3Determination of pump-down time from nomograms
2.3.5Selection of pumps for drying processes
2.3.7Choice of suitable valves
3.1Fundamentals of low-pressure measure- ment
3.2.1Bourdon vacuum gauges
3.2.2Diaphragm vacuum gauges
3.2.2.1 Capsule vacuum gauges
3.2.2.2DIAVAC diaphragm vacuum gauge
3.2.2.3Precision diaphragm vacuum gauges
3.2.2.4Capacitance diaphragm gauges
3.2.3Liquid-filled (mercury) vacuum gauges
3.2.3.1U-tube vacuum gauges
3.2.3.2Compression vacuum gauges (according to McLeod)
3.3Vacuum gauges with gas-dependent pres- sure reading
3.3.1Spinning rotor gauge (SRG) (VISCOVAC)
3.3.2Thermal conductivity vacuum gauges
3.3.3Ionization vacuum gauges
3.3.3.2Hot-cathode ionization vacuum gauges
3.4Adjustment and calibration; DKD, PTB national standards
3.5.1Fundamentals of pressure monitoring and control
3.5.4Pressure regulation in high and ultrahigh vacuum systems
3.5.5Examples of applications with diaphragm controllers
4.2A historical review
4.3The quadrupole mass spectrometer (TRANSPECTOR)
4.3.1Design of the sensor
4.3.1.1The normal (open) ion source
4.3.1.2The quadrupole separation system
4.3.1.3The measurement system (detector)
4.4Gas admission and pressure adaptation
4.4.1Metering valve
4.4.2Pressure converter
4.4.3Closed ion source (CIS)
4.4.4Aggressive gas monitor (AGM)
4.5Descriptive values in mass spectrometry (specifications)
4.5.1Line width (resolution)
4.5.2Mass range
4.5.3Sensitivity
4.5.4Smallest detectable partial pressure
4.5.5Smallest detectable partial pressure ratio (concentration)
4.5.6Linearity range
4.5.7Information on surfaces and amenability to bake-out
4.6Evaluating spectra
4.6.1Ionization and fundamental problems in gas analysis
4.6.2Partial pressure measurement
4.6.3Qualitative gas analysis
4.6.4Quantitative gas analysis
4.7.4Development software – TranspectorView
4.8Partial pressure regulation
5.1Types of leaks
5.2Leak rate, leak size, mass flow
5.2.1The standard helium leak rate
5.2.2Conversion equations
5.3Terms and definitions
5.4Leak detection methods without a leak detector unit
5.4.1Pressure rise test
5.4.2Pressure drop test
5.4.4Bubble immersion test
5.4.5Foam-spray test
5.4.6Vacuum box check bubble
5.4.7Krypton 85 test
5.4.8High-frequency vacuum test
5.4.9Test with chemical reactions and dye pene- tration
5.5Leak detectors and how they work
5.5.1Halogen leak detectors (HLD 4000, D-Tek)
5.5.2Leak detectors with mass spectrometers (MSLD)
5.5.2.1The operating principle for a MSLD
5.5.2.3Calibrating leak detectors; test leaks
5.5.2.6Direct-flow and counter-flow leak detectors
5.5.2.7Partial flow operation
5.7.4“Bombing” test, “Storage under pressure”
5.8Industrial leak testing
6.3The shape of quartz oscillator crystals
6.4Period measurement
6.5The Z match technique
6.6The active oscillator
6.7The mode-lock oscillator
6.8Auto Z match technique
6.9Coating thickness regulation
6.10INFICONinstrument variants
7.1Vacuum coating technique
7.2Coating sources
7.2.1Thermal evaporators (boats, wires etc.)
7.2.2Electron beam evaporators (electron guns)
7.2.3Cathode sputtering
7.2.4Chemical vapor deposition
7.3Vacuum coating technology/ coating systems
7.3.1Coating of parts
7.3.2Web coating
7.3.3Optical coatings
7.3.4Glass coating
7.3.5Systems for producing data storage disks
8.3General operating information for vacuum pumps
8.Instructions for vacuum equipment opera- tion
8.3.1.1Oil consumption, oil contamination, oil change
8.3.1.2Selection of the pump oil when handling aggres- sive vapors
8.3.1.3Measures when pumping various chemical sub- stances
8.3.2Roots pumps
8.3.2.2Oil change, maintenance work
8.3.2.3Actions in case of operational disturbances
8.3.3Turbomolecular pumps
8.3.3.1General operating instructions
8.3.3.2Maintenance
8.3.4Diffusion and vapor-jet vacuum pumps
8.3.4.1Changing the pump fluid and cleaning the pump
8.3.4.2Operating errors with diffusion and vapor-jet pumps
8.3.5Adsorption pumps
8.3.5.1Reduction of adsorption capacity
8.3.5.2Changing the molecular sieve
8.3.6Titanium sublimation pumps
8.3.7Sputter-ion pumps
8.4Information on working with vacuum gauges
8.4.1Information on installing vacuum sensors
8.4.3The influence of magnetic and electrical fields
8.4.4Connectors, power pack, measurement systems
10.The statutory units used in vacuum technol- ogy
10.1Introduction
10.3Remarks on alphabetical list in Section 10.2
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FUNDAMENTALS

FUNDAMENTALS

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Published by Anshul Jain

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Published by: Anshul Jain on Mar 15, 2011
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