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Table Of Contents

ABSTRACT
1) Introduction
Wholeness in Ṛgvedic and Proto-Indo-European Language
Framing the Research Questions
Examples of English Whole
2) METHODOLOGY AND METHODS
Methodology
Historical Linguistics and the Comparative Method
Diachronic and Synchronic Change
Lexical Semantics
Semantic Fields
Semantic Continua
Cognitive Linguistics
Cognitive Metaphor
Cognitive Metonymy
Similar Methodolgies in Vedic Studies
Inclusion/Exclusion of Texts
Data Collection: Lexical Algorithm for Inclusion/Exclusion of Data
Data Analysis and Interpretation of Meaning
Cultural Insights from Linguistic Methodology and Methods
Remarks on Transliteration and Phonetic Representation
3) LITERATURE REVIEW
Criteria for Inclusion/Exclusion of Literature
Search Engines and Parameters for Literature Review
Objectives of Literature Review
Framing the Questions for the Literature Review
Review of Works
Books
Articles from Journals
Dissertation
4) Chapter Overview
5) Wholeness as a Metaphor for Oneness
PIE Concept of ‘One’
PIE *oi- and *sem-
PIE *oi-
PIE *sem-
The Semantic Development of PIE *oi- and *sem-
PIE Concept of ‘Two’
PIE *sem- and *du- as Deictic Roots
‘Wholeness/Oneness’ and ‘Otherness/Twoness’ as Semantic Fields
Reflexes of PIE *sem- and *oi- in the Ṛgveda
Saṃ- and Sa- in the Ṛgveda
Samvát- ‘whole direction, i.e. landscape’
Samvatsará - ‘one whole duration, i.e. year’
Satrā́ - ‘in one whole place, by one whole manner, i.e. wholly, completely’
Archaic Morphology of Vedic Saṃ- and Sa-
Éka- in the Ṛgveda
Tád Ékaṃ
Ékam Idám
Ékam Víśvam
New Conceptual Model of ‘One’ and ‘Two’ in PIE and Vedic Sanskrit
6) Wholeness as Metaphor for Inclusiveness and Being
Inclusiveness versus Exclusiveness in PIE Language
Reflexes of this Binary Pronominal Distinction in Vedic Sanskrit
The Conceptual Distinction between the Dual and Plural Category
The Dual as Late Innovation in PIE
Connection between Grammatical Inclusiveness and Conceptual Wholeness
Binary Feature of Active versus Inactive in PIE Verbal System
Inactive versus Active Verbs in PIE and Vedic Sanskrit
Binary Feature of Active versus Inactive in Vedic Sanskrit
Semantic distinction between Vedic Sanskrit √as- and √bhū- as Verbs
Semantic distinction between Vedic Sanskrit √as- and √bhū- as Nouns
The PIE root *Hes- and Vedic Sanskrit √as- as Inactive Verbs
The Morphosemantic Connection of PIE *Hes- with *Hēs-
PIE *Hēs- and Vedic Sanskrit √ās-
Vedic Sanskrit āsā́t ‘from the proximity, near’ as Inclusiveness and
Vedic Sanskrit svāsasthá- ‘well-located nearby’
Reflexes of PIE *Hēs- and *dṷ(e)H- in Vedic Sanskrit
Chapter Summary
7) Wholeness as a Cognitive Metaphor for Individuation and Interiocity
The Linguistic Features of Individuation and Interiocity
The PIE Concept of Wholeness as a Metaphor for Individuation and Interiocity
and Interiocity
Semantics of Vedic Sanskrit su- in the Ṛgveda
PIE Reflexive Markers as Innovation Replacing the Grammatical Middle Voice
The Semantics of Vedic Sanskrit priyá- in the Ṛgveda
Language and Thought
PIE *sṷesor- and Vedic Sanskrit svásar- ‘sister’
Individuation and Interiocity and Metaphor for Wholeness
Sanskrit
and *(H)su- ‘Good’
The Evidence in Archaic Hittite Texts
The PIE suffix *-u- as the Missing Morphological Link
Semantic Concatenation and Continuum of Wholeness and Being
PIE *Hsont- and Ṛgvedic sá(n)t- as ‘Being, Reality, and Truth’
Semantics of Vedic Sanskrit sá(n)t and ása(n)t-
Metaphorical Expressions of PIE *Hes- and Vedic Sanskrit √as-
8) Otherness as a Metaphor for Twoness
Binary Contrast between ‘Good’ and ‘Bad’ in PIE Language
PIE *deuH(s)- ‘Lack, Be Distant, Deficient, Inferior’
The Morphological Relationship of PIE *deuH(s)-, *du(H)s- , and *du̯oH(u)-
The Semantic Relationship among PIE *deuH(s)-, *du(H)s-, and *du̯oH(u)-
Reflexes of *deuHs- in Vedic Sanskrit and other IE Languages
PIE *deuHs- as a Metaphor of ‘Secondness’
Homeric Greek deúteros
Hittite duianalli- and tūṷa-
The Connection between PIE *dueHs- and *deuHs- as Schwebe Ablaut
Allomorphs of PIE *deuH- as Schwebe Ablaut
Vedic Sanskrit dávīyas- versus dvitā́ - and English farther versus further
‘Two’
Twoness and Duality as Metaphors for Badness, Hostility, and Enmity
‘Bad, Foul’
Lexico-Semantics of *du- in PIE and Vedic Sanskrit
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DISSERTATION MASTER DOC

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