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Planning Guidance for Response to a Nuclear Detonation (DHS)

Planning Guidance for Response to a Nuclear Detonation (DHS)

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Published by Impello_Tyrannis
The purpose of this guidance is to provide emergency planners with nuclear detonation specific response recommendations to maximize the preservation of life in the event of an urban nuclear detonation. This guidance addresses the unique effects and impacts of a nuclear detonation such as scale of destruction, shelter and evacuation strategies, unparalleled medical demands, management of nuclear casualties, and radiation dose management concepts. The guidance is aimed at response activities in an environment with a severely compromised infrastructure for the first few days (e.g., 24 – 72 hours) when it is likely that many Federal resources will still be en route to the incident.

Some Definitions, etc.:
ALARA – (Acronym for “As Low As Reasonably Achievable”) –A process to control or
manage radiation exposure to individuals and releases of radioactive material to the
environment so that doses are as low as social, technical, economic, practical, and public
welfare considerations permit.
Beta burn – beta radiation induced skin damage
Blast effects – The impacts caused by the shock wave of energy through air that is created by
detonation of a nuclear device. The blast wave is a pulse of air in which the pressure
increases sharply at the front, accompanied by winds.
Combined injury – Victims of the immediate effects of a nuclear detonation are likely to
suffer from burns and physical trauma, in addition to radiation exposure.
The purpose of this guidance is to provide emergency planners with nuclear detonation specific response recommendations to maximize the preservation of life in the event of an urban nuclear detonation. This guidance addresses the unique effects and impacts of a nuclear detonation such as scale of destruction, shelter and evacuation strategies, unparalleled medical demands, management of nuclear casualties, and radiation dose management concepts. The guidance is aimed at response activities in an environment with a severely compromised infrastructure for the first few days (e.g., 24 – 72 hours) when it is likely that many Federal resources will still be en route to the incident.

Some Definitions, etc.:
ALARA – (Acronym for “As Low As Reasonably Achievable”) –A process to control or
manage radiation exposure to individuals and releases of radioactive material to the
environment so that doses are as low as social, technical, economic, practical, and public
welfare considerations permit.
Beta burn – beta radiation induced skin damage
Blast effects – The impacts caused by the shock wave of energy through air that is created by
detonation of a nuclear device. The blast wave is a pulse of air in which the pressure
increases sharply at the front, accompanied by winds.
Combined injury – Victims of the immediate effects of a nuclear detonation are likely to
suffer from burns and physical trauma, in addition to radiation exposure.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Impello_Tyrannis on Mar 15, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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07/06/2011

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 This guidance was developed by a Federal interagency committee with representation fromthe Executive Office of the President (Homeland Security Council and Office of Science andTechnology Policy), the Departments of Defense, Energy, Health and Human Services,Homeland Security, Transportation, Veteran’s Affairs, the Environmental Protection Agency,the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Nuclear RegulatoryCommission.Please refer comments and questions to the Office of Science and Technology Policy,Executive Office of the President (www.ostp.gov).
 
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACRONYM LIST............................................................................................................. 1
 
DEFINITIONS................................................................................................................. 3
 
UNITS............................................................................................................................. 5
 
R
EFERENCES FOR
U
NITS
......................................................................................................5
 
STRUCTURE OF THIS DOCUMENT............................................................................. 6
 
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 7
 
R
EFERENCES FOR
I
NTRODUCTION
.......................................................................................10
 
CHAPTER 1 - NUCLEAR DETONATION EFFECTS AND IMPACTS IN AN URBANENVIRONMENT ........................................................................................................... 12
 
O
VERVIEW
..........................................................................................................................12
 
B
LAST
................................................................................................................................13
 
B
LAST
I
NJURIES
..................................................................................................................18
 
T
HERMAL
R
ADIATION
(
OR
H
EAT
)..........................................................................................19
 
T
HERMAL
I
NJURIES
.............................................................................................................20
 
R
ADIATION AND
F
ALLOUT
....................................................................................................22
 
R
ADIATION
I
NJURIES AND
F
ALLOUT
H
EALTH
I
MPACTS
...........................................................26
 
C
OMBINED
I
NJURIES
...........................................................................................................28
 
EMP ..................................................................................................................................28
 
R
EFERENCES
......................................................................................................................29
 
CHAPTER 2 - A ZONED APPROACH TO NUCLEAR DETONATION RESPONSE... 30
 
O
VERVIEW
..........................................................................................................................31
 
Z
ONED
A
PPROACH TO
R
ESPONSE
.......................................................................................31
 
R
ESPONSE
F
UNCTIONS AND
P
RIORITIES
..............................................................................32
 
R
ESPONSE
W
ORKER
S
AFETY
..............................................................................................39
 
R
EFERENCES
......................................................................................................................45
 
CHAPTER 3 - SHELTER / EVACUATION RECOMMENDATIONS............................. 47
 
O
VERVIEW
..........................................................................................................................47
 
P
ROTECTIVE
A
CTIONS
.........................................................................................................49
 
P
LANNING
C
ONSIDERATIONS
...............................................................................................55
 
E
VACUATION
B
IBLIOGRAPHY
...............................................................................................58
 
R
EFERENCES
......................................................................................................................59
 
CHAPTER 4 – EARLY MEDICAL CARE..................................................................... 61
 
O
VERVIEW
..........................................................................................................................61
 
I
NITIAL
M
ASS
C
ASUALTY
T
RIAGE
(
I
.
E
.,
 
S
ORTING
)..................................................................67
 
E
MERGENCY
C
ARE
.............................................................................................................74
 
F
ATALITY
M
ANAGEMENT
......................................................................................................77
 
A
DDITIONAL
R
ESOURCES
....................................................................................................78
 
R
EFERENCES
......................................................................................................................79
 
CHAPTER 5 – POPULATION MONITORING AND DECONTAMINATION................. 81
 
O
VERVIEW
..........................................................................................................................82
 

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