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PRF Spitler Fisher 99

PRF Spitler Fisher 99

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ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia 491
ABSTRACT
Harris and McQuiston (1988) developed conductiontransfer function (CTF) coefficients corresponding to 41 repre-sentative wall assemblies and 42 representative roof assem-blies for use with the transfer function method (TFM). Theyalso developed a grouping procedure that allows design engi-neers to determine the correct representative wall or roof assembly that most closely matches a specific wall or roof assembly. The CTF coefficients and the grouping procedure
have been summarized in the ASHRAE Handbook Funda-mentals (1989, 1993, 1997) and the ASHRAE Cooling and Heating Load Calculation Manual, second edition (McQuis-ton and Spitler 1992).More recently, a new, simplified design cooling load calculation procedure, the radiant time series method (RTSM),has been developed (Spitler et al. 1997). The RTSM uses peri-odic response factors to model transient conductive heat trans-fer. While not a true manual load calculation procedure, it isquite feasible to implement the RTSM in a spreadsheet. To beuseful in such an environment, it would be desirable to have apre-calculated set of periodic response factors. Accordingly, aset of periodic response factors has been calculated and ispresented in this paper.
INTRODUCTION
The transfer function method (TFM) for design coolingload calculations has been in use for a number of years. Thismethod uses conduction transfer functions (CTFs) to calculatethe transient, one-dimensional conduction through the build-ing wall and roof elements. Conduction transfer functions area closed form representation of a conduction response factorseries. Conduction response factors, as derived by Mitalas andStephenson (1967) and Hittle (1981), are an exact solution tothe transient conductive heat transfer problem for a multi-layer wall or roof with boundary conditions that can be repre-sented by a piecewise linear profile. The response factor seriesis infinite, so in practice it must be truncated, resulting in someminor, but controllable, loss of accuracy. Stephenson andMitalas (1967) compared a response factor method to ananalog computer simulation and showed that for the one-hourtime steps commonly used in building energy and thermal loadcalculations, the expected error due to truncation of the infi-nite response factor series is small. Procedures for developingconduction transfer functions from response factors aredescribed by Peavy (1978) and Hittle (1981). The methods arenecessarily inexact but have been compared to both analyticaland numerical solutions with excellent results. Maloney(1985) showed that for a one-dimensional, transient slab withlinearly varying surface temperatures, the differences between
a CTF solution and an analytical solution based on Duhamel’smethod are negligible.ASHRAE research project RP-472 provided a set of conduction transfer function coefficients (Harris and McQuis-ton 1988) corresponding to 41 representative roof types and42 representative wall types. In addition, a grouping proce-dure was developed so that, theoretically, any wall or roof could be mapped into one of the representative wall types. Thewalls are mapped using four parameters: primary wall mate-rial (the most thermally massive element), secondary wallmaterial, R-value, and the thermal mass location (in, out, orintegral). Roofs are also mapped using four parameters:primary roof material, thermal mass location, R-value, andpresence or absence of a suspended ceiling. Once the repre-sentative wall or roof type has been identified, the CTF coef-ficients may be “unnormalized” so that the U-factor of the
Development of Periodic ResponseFactors for Use with the RadiantTime Series Method
Jeffrey D. Spitler, Ph.D., P.E. Daniel E. Fisher, Ph.D.
Member ASHRAE Member ASHRAE 
Jeffrey D. Spitler
is associate professor at Oklahoma State University, Stillwater.
Daniel E. Fisher
is senior research engineer at the Universityof Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
SE-99-1-1
© 1999, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org).Published in ASHRAE Transactions 1999, Vol 105, Part 2. For personal use only. Additional distribution ineither paper or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE’s permission.
 
492 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia
actual wall or roof is preserved in the CTF coefficients. Oncethe coefficients have been determined, they are applied usingthe conduction transfer function:(1)Since originally appearing in the
1989 ASHRAE Hand-
bookFundamentals
, the tabulated CTF coefficients haveproved to be useful to designers. The radiant time seriesmethod (RTSM) uses periodic response factors to model tran-sient conductive heat transfer:(2)Since the RTSM is amenable to spreadsheet-level imple-mentation, a tabulated set of periodic response factors is auseful addition to the literature. The objective of this paper isto present a set of periodic response factors that correspondexactly to the CTFs previously published. If desired, they canbe used with exactly the same grouping procedure and a
slightly different “unnormalization” procedure.
METHODOLOGY
Periodic response factors can be derived directly from aset of CTF coefficients. The procedure is discussed in greaterdetail in another paper (Spitler and Fisher 1999), but ispresented here to document the method to generate the peri-odic response factors directly from the tabulated CTF coeffi-cients. The periodic response factors developed with thisprocedure yield exactly the same results as the conductiontransfer functions, if the boundary conditions (sol-air temper-atures) are steady periodic. Table 1 defines the terms used inthe discussion.Noting that a fundamental property of conduction trans-fer functions is that
Σ
b
n
 
=
Σ
c
n
, the general CTF equation (1)can be written out for each hour to form a set of 24 hourlyequations, as follows:(3a)(3b)(3c)The 24 hourly equations can be rearranged and written ina matrix form, as shown in Equation 4.(4)Equation 4 can be rearranged and represented moresimply as:
q´´ = D
-1
 
B T 
e
 
D
-1
 
B T 
rc
= D
-1
 
B (T 
e
 
rc
)
(5)
q
θ″ 
b
n
e
θ
n
δ
,
n
q
θ
n
δ
″ 
rc
n
1=6
c
nn
0=6
n
0=6
=
q
θ″ 
Pj
e
θ
j
δ
,
rc
Pjj
0=23
j
0=23
=
q
1
″ 
b
n
e
1
n
δ
,
n
q
1
n
δ
″ 
rc
n
1=6
b
nn
0=6
n
0=6
=
q
2
″ 
b
n
e
2
n
δ
,
n
q
2
n
δ
″ 
rc
n
1=6
b
nn
0=6
n
0=6
=
q
24
″ 
b
n
e
24
n
δ
,
n
q
24
n
δ
″ 
rc
n
1=6
b
nn
0=6
n
0=6
=
TABLE 1Nomenclature
Subscripts
q´´ 
heat flux, (Btu/h)/ft
2
(W/m
2
)
P
periodic
temperature, ºF (°C)
j
index
b, d, c
conduction transfer functioncoefficients
n
index
periodic response factors
δ
timeinterval, h
Matrices
e
sol-air
q´´ 
column vector containingconductive heat fluxes
rc
constantroom air
e
 
column vector containingsol-air temperatures 
θ
current hour
B, D b
and
CTF coefficientmatrices
periodic response factormatrix
rc
column vector containing
rc
in every row1 0 0
3
2
1
1
1 0 0
 
2
2
1
1 0 0
 
 
3
2
1
1
q
1
″ 
q
2
″ 
q
3
″ 
 
 
q
1
″ 
b
0
0 0
 
b
2
b
1
b
1
b
0
0 0
 
b
2
b
2
b
1
b
0
0 0
 
 
b
4
b
3
b
2
b
1
b
0
e
1
,
e
2
,
e
3
,
 
 
e
24
,
rc
Σ
b
n
 
 
rc
Σ
b
n
=
 
ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia 493
where
D
= the left-hand side coefficient matrix,
q
´´ = the column vector containing the conductive heatfluxes,
B
= the right-hand side coefficient matrix,
e
= the column vector containing the sol-airtemperatures,
rc
= a column vector containing
rc
in every row.Similarly, the response factor equations can be written asa matrix formulation, as in Equation 6.(6)Equation 6 can be represented as:
q´´ = Y T 
e
Y T 
rc
= Y(T 
e
 
rc
)
(7)where
q
´´ = the column vector containing the conductive heatfluxes,
= the periodic response factor matrix,
e
= the column vector containing the sol-airtemperatures,
rc
= a column vector containing
rc
 
in every row.Together, Equations 5 and 7 yield the following relation-ship between the conduction transfer functions and the peri-odic response factors:
Y = D
-1
 
B
. (8)Consequently, the periodic response factors can be deter-mined from the matrix,
D
-1
B
. In fact, the first column of 
D
-1
B
is a column vector containing
P
0
,
P
1
,
P
2
, …,
P
23
.In order to generate the periodic response factors, thefollowing algorithm was implemented in a FORTRANprogram:Read wall and roof CTF coefficients from the ASHRAERP-626 database. (Falconer et al. 1993).Fill
D
and
B
matrices.Calculate
D
-1
and
D
-1
 
B.
Extract periodic response factors from
D
-1
 
B
.Output results in tabular form.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Periodic response factors were calculated for the 41representative wall types summarized in Table 2 and the 42representative roof types summarized in Table 3. The layersare described using the code numbers detailed in Table 11,chapter 28,
1997 ASHRAE HandbookFundamentals
.The periodic response factors are given in Tables 4through 9. They are given to accuracy of six decimal places,which should be more than sufficient for any practical appli-cation. SI versions of the periodic response factors are tabu-lated in the appendix in Tables A-1 through A-6.
APPLICATION
The representative wall types and roof types may beselected using exactly the same procedure as originally givenby Harris and McQuiston (1988) and later described in
ASHRAE Fundamentals
(ASHRAE 1989, 1993, 1997) and
Cooling and Heating Load Calculation Manual
, secondedition (McQuiston and Spitler 1992). However, if this proce-
dure is used, a slightly different “unnormalization” procedureis necessary. (The “unnormalization” procedure modifies theCTF coefficients so that they reflect the U-factor of the actualwall rather than the U-factor of the typical wall.) The CTFcoefficients are “unnormalized” by multiplying the
b
coeffi-cients by the ratio of the actual U-factor to the typical wall orroof’s U-factor. To “unnormalize” the periodic responsefactor, each
coefficient is multiplied by the ratio of the actualU-factor to the typical wall or roof’s U-factor.Finally, the error associated with using the tabulated peri-odic response factors is the same as that associated with usingthe tabulated CTF coefficients. The grouping proceduredeveloped by Harris and McQuiston (1988) was designed withtwo criteria:1. The typical wall or roof has a peak heat gain within ± onehour of the actual wall or roof.2. The typical wall or roof has a peak heat gain at least as highas, but no more than 20% higher than, the actual wall orroof.If users of the RTSM desire a higher degree of accuracy,periodic response factors may be calculated for the actual wallor roof type using software developed as part of ASHRAE875-RP. (Pedersen et al. 1998).
q
1
″ 
q
2
″ 
q
3
″ 
 
 
q
24
″ 
P
0
P
23
P
22
 
P
2
P
1
P
1
P
0
P
23
P
22
 
P
2
P
2
P
1
P
0
P
23
P
22
 
 
P
2
P
1
P
0
= 
e
1
,
e
2
,
e
3
,
 
 
e
24
,
rc
Σ
Pn
 
 
rc
Σ
Pn

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