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Volume 13, Number 4 November-December, 2008
Double Counting
Law Ka Ho, Leung Tat Wing and Li Kin Yin
The following were the problems of the Hong Kong Team Selection Test 2,which was held on November 8, 2008for the 2009 IMO.
Problem 1.
Let
f:Z
(
is the set of all integers) be such that
(1) = 1,
(2) =20,
(
4) =
4 and
(
x+y
) =
(
x
) +
(
y
) +
axy
(
x+y
) +
bxy
+
c
(
x+y
) + 4for all
x,y

Z, where
a, b
and
c
arecertain constants.(a) Find a formula for
(
x
), where
x
isany integer.(b) If
(
x
)

mx
2
+ (5
m
+1)
x
+ 4
m
for allnon-negative integers
x
, find the greatestpossible value of
m
.
Problem 2.
Define a
-
clique
to be a setof
people such that every pair of themknow each other (knowing is mutual).At a certain party, there are two or more3-cliques, but no 5-clique. Every pair of 3-cliques has at least one person incommon. Prove that there exist at leastone, and not more than two persons atthe party, whose departure (or simultaneous departure) leaves no3-clique remaining.
(continued on page 4)

Editors:

(CHEUNG Pak-Hong), Munsang College, HK

(KO Tsz-Mei)

(LEUNG Tat-Wing)

(LI Kin-Yin), Dept. of Math., HKUST

(NG Keng-Po Roger), ITC, HKPU
Artist:

(YEUNG Sau-Ying Camille), MFA, CU
Acknowledgment:
Thanks to Elina Chiu, Math. Dept.,HKUST for general assistance.
On-line:
http://www.math.ust.hk/mathematical_excalibur/The editors welcome contributions from all teachers andstudents. With your submission, please include your name,address, school, email, telephone and fax numbers (if available). Electronic submissions, especially in MS Word,are encouraged. The deadline for receiving material for thenext issue is
January 10, 2009
.For individual subscription for the next five issues for the05-06 academic year, send us five stamped self-addressedenvelopes. Send all correspondence to:Dr. Kin-Yin LIDepartment of MathematicsThe Hong Kong University of Science and TechnologyClear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong KongFax: (852) 2358 1643Email:makyli@ust.hk
There are often different ways tocount a quantity. By counting it in twoways (i.e. double counting), we thusobtain the same quantity in differentforms. This often yields interestingequalities and inequalities. We beginwith some simple examples.Below we will use the notation).)!(!/(!
nn
n
=

Example 1.
(
IMO HK Prelim 2003
)Fifteen students join a summer course.Every day, three students are on dutyafter school to clean the classroom.After the course, it was found that everypair of students has been on dutytogether exactly once. How many daysdoes the course last for?
Solution.
. Wecount the total number of pairs of students were on duty together in the
days. Since every pair of students wason duty together exactly once, this isequal to
152
1 105
× =
. On the other hand, since 3 students were on duty per day, this is also equal to
32
3
C k
× =
.Hence 3
= 105 and so
= 35.
Example 2.
(
IMO 1987
) Let
( )
n
p
bethe number of permutations of the set{1, 2, …,
n
},
1
n
, which have exactly
fixed points. Prove that
0
( ) !
nn
k p k n
=
=
.(
Remark
: A
permutation

of a set
is aone-to-one mapping of
onto itself. Anelement
i
in
is called a
fixed point
of the permutation
if
( )
f i i
=
.)
Solution.
Note that the left hand side of the equality is the total number of fixedpoints in all permutations of {1,2,…,
n
}.To show that this number is equal to
n
!,note that there are
( 1)!
n
permutationsof {1, 2, …,
n
} fixing 1,
( 1)!
n
permutations fixing 2, and so on, and
( 1)!
n
permutations fixing
n
. Itfollows that the total number of fixedpoints in all permutations is equal to
( 1)! !
n n n
=
.The simplest combinatorial identityis perhaps
n nr n
C
=
. While this can beverified algebraically, we can give aproof in a more combinatorial flavour:to choose
objects out of
n
, it isequivalent to choosing
n
objects outof
n
n
ways to do the former and
nn
ways todo the latter. So the two quantities mustbe equal.
Example 3.
Interpret the followingequalities from a combinatorial point of view:(a)
1 11
n n nk k
C C
= +
(b)
11 2
2 2
n n n nn
C C nC n
+ + + =
L

Solution.
(a) On one hand, the number of ways to choose
objects out of
n
objects is
n
. On the other hand, wemay count by including the first objector not. If we include the first object, weneed to choose 1
objects from theremaining 1
n
objects and there are
11
n
ways to do so.If we do not include the first object, weneed to choose
objects from theremaining 1
n
objects and there are
1
n
ways to do so. Hence
1 11
n n nk k
C C
= +
.(b) Suppose that from a set of
n
people,we want to form a committee with achairman of the committee. On onehand, there are
n
ways to choose achairman, and for each of the remaining1
n
persons we may or may notinclude him in the committee. Hencethere are
1
2
n
n
ways to finish the task.On the other hand, we may choose
people to form a committee (1

n
),which can be done in
n
ways, and for each of these ways there are
ways toselect the chairman. Hence the number of ways to finish the task is also equal to.2
21
nnnn
nC
+++
L

Mathematical Excalibur
, Vol. 13, No. 4, Nov.-Dec. 08
Page 2

Example 4.
(
IMO 1989
) Let
n
and
bepositive integers and let
be a set of
n
points in the plane such that:(i) no three points of
are collinear,and(ii) for every point
of
, there

are atleast
points of
equidistant from
.

Prove that

12 .2
k n
< +

Solution.
Solving for
n
, the desiredinequality is equivalent to
n
>
(
1)/2+ 1/8. Since
n
and
are positiveintegers, this is equivalent to

n

1

2
.

Now we join any two vertices of
by an
edge
and count the number of edges in two ways.On one hand, we have
n
2
edges. Onthe other hand, from any point of
there are at least
points equidistantfrom it. Hence if we draw a circle withthe point as centre and with thedistance as radius then there are at least
2
chords as edges. The total number of such chords, counted withmultiplicities, is at least
.
2
nC
Anytwo circles can have at most onecommon chord and hence there couldbe a maximum
n
2
chords (for everypossible pairs of circles) counted twice.Therefore,
,
222
nn
nC
which simplifies to
n

1

2
.

(Notethat collinearity was not needed.)
Example 5.
(
IMO 1998
) In acompetition, there are
m
contestantsand
n
judges, where
n

3 is an oddinteger. Each judge rates eachcontestant as either “pass” or “fail”.Suppose
is a number such that, for any two judges, their ratings coincidefor at most
contestants. Prove that
1.2
k nm n

Solution.
We begin by consideringpairs of judges who agree on certaincontestants. We study this from twoperspectives.For contestant
i
, 1

i

m
, supposethere are
x
i
judges who pass him, and
y
i
judges who fail him. On one hand, thenumber of pairs of judges who agree onhim is2
2222
iiii yx
yyxx
ii
+=+

222/)(
2
iiii
yxyx
++

( )
22
1 11 1 .4 2 4
nn n
= =
Since
n
is odd and
ii
yx
22
+
is aninteger, it is at least (
n

1)
2
/4.On the other hand, there are
n

judges andeach pair of judges agree on at most
contestants. Hence the number of pairs of judges who agree on a certain contestant isat most
2
.
n
kC
Thus,
=
+
miyxn
nmkC
ii
12222
,4)1()(
which can be simplified to obtain thedesired result.Some combinatorial problems inmathematical competitions can be solvedby double counting certain ordered triples.The following are two such examples.
Example 6.
(
CHKMO 2007
) In a schoolthere are 2007 male and 2007 femalestudents. Each student joins not morethan 100 clubs in the school. It is knownthat any two students of opposite gendershave joined at least one common club.Show that there is a club with at least 11male and 11 female members.
Solution.
Assume on the contrary thatevery club either has at most 10 malemembers or at most 10 female members.We shall get a contradiction via doublecounting certain ordered triples.Let
be the number of ordered triples of the form (
m
,
,
c
), where
m
denotes a malestudent,
denotes a female student and
c
denotes a club. On one hand, since anytwo students of opposite genders havejoined at least one common club, we have
2
2007 4028049
=
.On the other hand, we can consider twotypes of clubs: let
be the set of clubswith at most 10 male members, and
bethe set of clubs with at least 11 malemembers (and hence at most 10 femalemembers). Note that there are at most10×2007×100=2007000 triples (
m
,
,
c
)with
c
, because there are 2007choices for
, then at most 100 choices for
c
(each student joins at most 100 clubs),and then at most 10 choices for
m
(eachclub
c
has at most 10 malemembers). In exactly the same way, wecan show that there are at most 2007000triples (
m
,
,
c
) with
c
. This gives

Example 7.
(
2004 IMO Shortlisted Problem
) There are 10001 students at auniversity. Some students join togetheto form several clubs (a student maybelong to different clubs). Some clubsjoin together to form several societies (aclub may belong to different societies).There are a total of
societies. Supposethe following conditions hold:(i) Each pair of students is in exactlyone club.(ii) For each student and each society,the student is in exactly one club of thesociety.(iii) Each club has an odd number of students. In addition, a club with 2
m
+1students (
m
is a positive integer) is inexactly
m
societies.Find all possible values of
.
Solution.
An ordered triple (
a, C, S
) willbe called
acceptable
if
a
is a student,
is a club and
is a society such that
a
and
S.
We will count the number of acceptable ordered triples in two ways.On one hand, for every student
a
andsociety
, by (ii), there is a unique club
such that (
a, C, S
) is acceptable.Hence, there are 10001
acceptableordered triples.On the other hand, for every club
, letthe number of members in
be denotedby |
|. By (iii),
is in exactly (|
|
1)/2societies. So there are |
|(|
|
1)/2acceptable ordered triples with
as thesecond coordinates. Let
Γ
be the set of all clubs. Hence, there are
Γ
2)2|(|||
acceptable ordered triples. By (i), this isequal to the number of pairs of students,which is 10001×5000. Therefore,
Γ
=
2)2|(||| 10001

=
10001×5000,which implies
= 5000.
(continued on page 4)

Mathematical Excalibur
, Vol. 13, No. 4, Nov.-Dec. 08
Page 3

Problem Corner
We welcome readers to submit their solutions to the problems posed belowfor publication consideration. Thesolutions should be preceded by thesolver’s name, home (or email) addressand school affiliation. Please sendsubmissions to
Dr. Kin Y. Li,Department of Mathematics, The Hong Kong University of Science &Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon,Hong Kong.
January 10, 2009.

Problem 311.
Let
= {1,2,…,2008}.Prove that there exists a function
:

{red, white, blue, green} suchthat there does not exist a 10-termarithmetic progression
a
1
,
a
2
,…,
a
10
in
satisfying
(
a
1
) =
(
a
2
) =

=
(
a
10
).
Problem 312.
Let
x, y, z
> 1. Provethat
.48)1()1()1(
242424
++
xyyx

Problem 313.
In
Δ
ABC
,
AB
<
AC
and
O
is its circumcenter
.
Let thetangent at
A
to the circumcircle cut line
BC
at
D
. Let the perpendicular lines toline
BC
at
B
and
cut theperpendicular bisectors of sides
AB
and
AC
at
and
respectively. Prove that
D, E, F
are collinear.
Problem 314.
Determine all positiveintegers
x, y, z
satisfying
x
3

y
3
=
2
,where
y
is a prime,
is not divisible by3 and
is not divisible by
y
.
Problem 315.
Each face of

8 unitcubes is painted white or black. Let
n
be the total number of black faces.Determine the values of
n
such that inevery way of coloring
n
faces of the 8unit cubes black, there always exists away of stacking the 8 unit cubes into a2×2×2 cube
so the numbers of black squares and white squares on thesurface of
are the same.*****************
Solutions
****************
Problem 306.
Prove that for everyinteger
n

48, every cube can bedecomposed into
n
smaller cubes,where every pair of these small cubesdoes not have any common interior point and has possibly differentsidelengths.
Solution.

G.R.A. 20 Problem SolvingGroup
(Roma, Italy
)
and
LKL ProblemSolving Group
(Madam Lau Kam LungSecondary School of Miu Fat BuddhistMonastery).For such an integer
n
, we will say cubesare
n-decomposable
. Let
r-cube
mean acube with sidelength
. If a
-cube
is
n
-decomposable, then we can firstdecompose
into 8
/2-cubes and thendecompose one of these
/2-cubes into
n
cubes to get a total of
n
+7 cubes so that
is (
n
+7)-decomposable.Let
be a 1-cube. All we need to show is
is
n
-decomposable for 48

n

54.For
n
=48, decompose
to 27 1/3-cubesand then decompose 3 of these, each into 81/6-cubes.For
n
=49, cut
by two planes parallel tothe bottom at height 1/2 and 1/6 from thebottom, which can produce 4 1/2-cubes atthe top layer, 9 1/3-cubes in the middlelayer and 36 1/6-cubes at the bottom layer.For
n
=50, decompose
to 8 1/2-cubesand then decompose 6 of these, each into 81/4-cubes.For
n
=51, decompose
into 8 1/2-cubes,then take 3 of these 1/2-cubes on the tophalf to form a L-shaped prism and cut out5 1/3-cubes and 41 1/6-cubes.For
n
=52, decompose
into 1 3/4-cubeand 37 1/4-cubes, then decompose 21/4-cubes, each into 8 1/8-cubes.For
n
=53, decompose
to 27 1/3-cubesand then decompose 1 of these into 271/9-cubes.For
n
=54, decompose
into 8 1/2-cubes,then take 2 of the adjacent 1/2-cubes,which form a 1×1/2×1/2 box, from whichwe can cut 2 3/8-cubes, 4 1/4-cubes and42 1/8-cubes.
Cube Dissection
.
Problem 307.
Let
(
x
) =
a
0
x
n

+
a
1
x
n
1
+

+
a
n

be a polynomial with real coefficientssuch that
a
0
0 and for all real
x
,
(
x
)
(2
x
2
) =
(2
x
3
+
x
).Prove that
(
x
) has no real root.
Solution.
José Luis DÍAZ-BARRERO
(Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya,Barcelona, Spain),
Glenier L.BELLO-BURGUET
(I.E.S. HermanosD`Elhuyar, Spain),
G.R.A. 20 ProblemSolving Group
(Roma, Italy),
OzgurKIRCAK and Bojan JOVESKI
(Jahja Kemal College, Skopje,Macedonia)
, LKL Problem SolvingGroup
(Madam Lau Kam LungSecondary School of Miu Fat BuddhistMonastery)
, NG Ngai Fung
(STFALeung Kau Kui College, Form 6),
OKin Chit Alex
(G.T. Ellen YeungCollege) and
Fai YUNG
.For such polynomial
(
x
), let
belargest such that
a
0. Then
,22)2()(
)(3232 02
nn nn
xaxaxx
++=
L

,2)2(
303
nnn
xaxaxx
++=+
L
where the terms are ordered bydecreasing degrees. This can happenonly if
n
= 0. So
(0)
=

a
n

0.Assume
(
x
) has a real root
x
0
0. Theequation
(
x
)
(2
x
2
) =
(2
x
3
+
x
) impliesthat if
x
n
is a real root, then
nnn
xxx
+=
+
31
2
is also a real root.Since this sequence is strictlymonotone, this implies
(
x
) hasinfinitely many real roots, which is acontradiction.
Commended solvers
:
Simon YAU ChiKeung
(City U).
Problem 308.
Determine (with proof)the greatest positive integer
n
>1 suchthat the system of equations
.)()2()1(
22222212
n
ynxyxyx
++==++=++
L
has an integral solution (
x,y
1
, y
2
,

,
y
n
).
Solution.
Glenier L. BELLO-BURGUET
(I.E.S. HermanosD`Elhuyar, Spain),
Ozgur KIRCAK and Bojan JOVESKI
(Jahja KemalCollege, Skopje, Macedonia)

and
LKLProblem Solving Group
(Madam LauKam Lung Secondary School of MiuFat Buddhist Monastery).We will show the greatest such
n
is 3.For
n
= 3, (
x
,
y
1
,
y
2
,
y
3
) = (
2, 0, 1, 0) is asolution. For
n
4, assume the systemhas an integral solution. Since
x
+1,
x
+2, …,
x
+
n
are of alternate parity, so
y
1
,
y
2
, …,
y
n

are also of alternate parity.Since
n

4,
y
is even for
= 2 or 3.Consider
.)1()()1(
212222 12
+
+++=+=++
yxyxyx
The double of the middle expressionequals the sum of the left and rightexpressions. Eliminating commonterms in that equation, we get
.22
21212
++=
+
yyy
(*)Now
y
1
and
y
+1
are odd. Then the leftside of (*) is 0 (mod 8), but the rightside is 4 (mod 8), a contradiction.
Commended solvers
:
O Kin Chit Alex
(G.T. (Ellen Yeung) College),
Raúl A.SIMON
(Santiago, Chile) and
Simon