Mathematical Excalibur
, Vol. 13, No. 4, Nov.-Dec. 08
Page 3
Problem Corner
We welcome readers to submit their solutions to the problems posed belowfor publication consideration. Thesolutions should be preceded by thesolver’s name, home (or email) addressand school affiliation. Please sendsubmissions to
Dr. Kin Y. Li,Department of Mathematics, The Hong Kong University of Science &Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon,Hong Kong.
The deadline for sendingsolutions is
January 10, 2009.
Problem 311.
Let
S
= {1,2,…,2008}.Prove that there exists a function
f
:
S
→
{red, white, blue, green} suchthat there does not exist a 10-termarithmetic progression
a
1
,
a
2
,…,
a
10
in
S
satisfying
f
(
a
1
) =
f
(
a
2
) =
⋯
=
f
(
a
10
).
Problem 312.
Let
x, y, z
> 1. Provethat
.48)1()1()1(
242424
≥−+−+−
xz z yyx
Problem 313.
In
Δ
ABC
,
AB
<
AC
and
O
is its circumcenter
.
Let thetangent at
A
to the circumcircle cut line
BC
at
D
. Let the perpendicular lines toline
BC
at
B
and
C
cut theperpendicular bisectors of sides
AB
and
AC
at
E
and
F
respectively. Prove that
D, E, F
are collinear.
Problem 314.
Determine all positiveintegers
x, y, z
satisfying
x
3
−
y
3
=
z
2
,where
y
is a prime,
z
is not divisible by3 and
z
is not divisible by
y
.
Problem 315.
Each face of
8 unitcubes is painted white or black. Let
n
be the total number of black faces.Determine the values of
n
such that inevery way of coloring
n
faces of the 8unit cubes black, there always exists away of stacking the 8 unit cubes into a2×2×2 cube
C
so the numbers of black squares and white squares on thesurface of
C
are the same.*****************
Solutions
****************
Problem 306.
Prove that for everyinteger
n
≥
48, every cube can bedecomposed into
n
smaller cubes,where every pair of these small cubesdoes not have any common interior point and has possibly differentsidelengths.
Solution.
G.R.A. 20 Problem SolvingGroup
(Roma, Italy
)
and
LKL ProblemSolving Group
(Madam Lau Kam LungSecondary School of Miu Fat BuddhistMonastery).For such an integer
n
, we will say cubesare
n-decomposable
. Let
r-cube
mean acube with sidelength
r
. If a
r
-cube
C
is
n
-decomposable, then we can firstdecompose
C
into 8
r
/2-cubes and thendecompose one of these
r
/2-cubes into
n
cubes to get a total of
n
+7 cubes so that
C
is (
n
+7)-decomposable.Let
C
be a 1-cube. All we need to show is
C
is
n
-decomposable for 48
≤
n
≤
54.For
n
=48, decompose
C
to 27 1/3-cubesand then decompose 3 of these, each into 81/6-cubes.For
n
=49, cut
C
by two planes parallel tothe bottom at height 1/2 and 1/6 from thebottom, which can produce 4 1/2-cubes atthe top layer, 9 1/3-cubes in the middlelayer and 36 1/6-cubes at the bottom layer.For
n
=50, decompose
C
to 8 1/2-cubesand then decompose 6 of these, each into 81/4-cubes.For
n
=51, decompose
C
into 8 1/2-cubes,then take 3 of these 1/2-cubes on the tophalf to form a L-shaped prism and cut out5 1/3-cubes and 41 1/6-cubes.For
n
=52, decompose
C
into 1 3/4-cubeand 37 1/4-cubes, then decompose 21/4-cubes, each into 8 1/8-cubes.For
n
=53, decompose
C
to 27 1/3-cubesand then decompose 1 of these into 271/9-cubes.For
n
=54, decompose
C
into 8 1/2-cubes,then take 2 of the adjacent 1/2-cubes,which form a 1×1/2×1/2 box, from whichwe can cut 2 3/8-cubes, 4 1/4-cubes and42 1/8-cubes.
Comments:
Interested readers may findmore information on this problem byvisiting mathworld.wolfram.com and bysearching for
Cube Dissection
.
Problem 307.
Let
f
(
x
) =
a
0
x
n
+
a
1
x
n
−
1
+
⋯
+
a
n
be a polynomial with real coefficientssuch that
a
0
≠
0 and for all real
x
,
f
(
x
)
f
(2
x
2
) =
f
(2
x
3
+
x
).Prove that
f
(
x
) has no real root.
Solution.
José Luis DÍAZ-BARRERO
(Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya,Barcelona, Spain),
Glenier L.BELLO-BURGUET
(I.E.S. HermanosD`Elhuyar, Spain),
G.R.A. 20 ProblemSolving Group
(Roma, Italy),
OzgurKIRCAK and Bojan JOVESKI
(Jahja Kemal College, Skopje,Macedonia)
, LKL Problem SolvingGroup
(Madam Lau Kam LungSecondary School of Miu Fat BuddhistMonastery)
, NG Ngai Fung
(STFALeung Kau Kui College, Form 6),
OKin Chit Alex
(G.T. Ellen YeungCollege) and
Fai YUNG
.For such polynomial
f
(
x
), let
k
belargest such that
a
k
≠
0. Then
,22)2()(
)(3232
02
k nk n
k nn
xaxaxf xf
−−
++=
L
,2)2(
303
k nk nn
xaxaxxf
−
++=+
L
where the terms are ordered bydecreasing degrees. This can happenonly if
n
−
k
= 0. So
f
(0)
=
a
n
≠
0.Assume
f
(
x
) has a real root
x
0
≠
0. Theequation
f
(
x
)
f
(2
x
2
) =
f
(2
x
3
+
x
) impliesthat if
x
n
is a real root, then
nnn
xxx
+=
+
31
2
is also a real root.Since this sequence is strictlymonotone, this implies
f
(
x
) hasinfinitely many real roots, which is acontradiction.
Commended solvers
:
Simon YAU ChiKeung
(City U).
Problem 308.
Determine (with proof)the greatest positive integer
n
>1 suchthat the system of equations
.)()2()1(
22222212
n
ynxyxyx
++==++=++
L
has an integral solution (
x,y
1
, y
2
,
⋯
,
y
n
).
Solution.
Glenier L. BELLO-BURGUET
(I.E.S. HermanosD`Elhuyar, Spain),
Ozgur KIRCAK and Bojan JOVESKI
(Jahja KemalCollege, Skopje, Macedonia)
and
LKLProblem Solving Group
(Madam LauKam Lung Secondary School of MiuFat Buddhist Monastery).We will show the greatest such
n
is 3.For
n
= 3, (
x
,
y
1
,
y
2
,
y
3
) = (
−
2, 0, 1, 0) is asolution. For
n
≥
4, assume the systemhas an integral solution. Since
x
+1,
x
+2, …,
x
+
n
are of alternate parity, so
y
1
,
y
2
, …,
y
n
are also of alternate parity.Since
n
≥
4,
y
k
is even for
k
= 2 or 3.Consider
.)1()()1(
212222
12
+−
+++=+−=+−+
k k k
yk xyk xyk x
The double of the middle expressionequals the sum of the left and rightexpressions. Eliminating commonterms in that equation, we get
.22
21212
++=
+−
k k k
yyy
(*)Now
y
k
−
1
and
y
k
+1
are odd. Then the leftside of (*) is 0 (mod 8), but the rightside is 4 (mod 8), a contradiction.
Commended solvers
:
O Kin Chit Alex
(G.T. (Ellen Yeung) College),
Raúl A.SIMON
(Santiago, Chile) and
Simon