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Volume 15, Number 4 January 2011
Klamkin’s Inequality
Kin Y. Li
Olympiad Corner
Below are the problems of the 2011Chinese Math Olympiad, which washeld on January 2011.
Problem 1.
Let
a
1
,
a
2
,…,
a
n
 
(
n
3) bereal numbers. Prove that
,)(2
21112
mnaaa
niiinii
 where
,min,max,
1111
iniinin
amaaa
 [
x
] denotes the greatest integer notexceeding
x
.
Problem 2.
 
In the figure,
D
is themidpoint of the arc
BC 
on thecircumcircle
Γ 
of triangle
AB
C. Point
 is on arc
BD
.
is the midpoint of arc
AX 
.
is a point on arc
AC 
. Lines
SD
 and
BC 
intersect at point
R
. Lines
SE 
 and
AX 
intersect at point
. Prove thatif 
RT 
||
DE 
, then the incenter of triangle
ABC 
is on line
RT 
.
BADR
 
(continued on page 4) 
 
Editors:
 
 
 
 
(CHEUNG Pak-Hong), Munsang College, HK
 
 
(KO Tsz-Mei)
 
 
(LEUNG Tat-Wing)
 
 
(LI Kin-Yin), Dept. of Math., HKUST
 
 
(NG Keng-Po Roger), ITC, HKPU
Artist:
 
 
 
(YEUNG Sau-Ying Camille), MFA, CU
Acknowledgment:
Thanks to Elina Chiu, Math. Dept.,HKUST for general assistance.
On-line:
 http://www.math.ust.hk/mathematical_excalibur/ The editors welcome contributions from all teachers andstudents. With your submission, please include your name,address, school, email, telephone and fax numbers (if available). Electronic submissions, especially in MS Word,are encouraged. The deadline for receiving material for thenext issue is
February 28, 2011
.For individual subscription for the next five issues for the09-10 academic year, send us five stamped self-addressedenvelopes. Send all correspondence to:Dr. Kin-Yin LI, Math Dept., Hong Kong Univ. of Scienceand Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong KongFax: (852) 2358 1643Email:makyli@ust.hk  © Department of Mathematics, The Hong Kong Universityof Science and Technology
In 1971 Professor Murray Klamkinestablished the following
Theorem.
For any real numbers
x,y,z 
,integer 
n
and angles
α
,
β 
,
γ
of anytriangle, we have
).coscoscos(2)1(
1222
   
nxynzxnyz  yx
n
 Equality holds if and only if 
.sinsinsin
   
nnynx
 The proof follows immediately fromexpanding
2
)coscos()1(
  
nnyx
n
 
.0)sinsin(
2
  
nny
 There are many nice inequalities that wecan obtain from this inequality. Thefollowing are some examples (seereferences [1] and [2] for more).
Example 1.
For angles
α
,
β 
,
γ
of anytriangle, if 
n
is an odd integer, then
2/3coscoscos
   
nnn
.If 
n
is an even integer, then
.2/3coscoscos
   
nnn
 (This is just the case
x=y=z 
=1.)
Example 2.
For angles
α
,
β 
,
γ
of anytriangle,
.4cos32cos2cos3
   
 (This is just the case
n
= 1,
x
= sin 90
°
,
y
= sin 60
°
,
= sin 30
°
.)There are many symmetric inequalitiesin
α
,
β 
,
γ
, which can be proved bystandard identities or methods.However, if we encounter 
asymmetric
 inequality like the one in example 2, itmay be puzzling in coming up with aproof.
Example 3.
Let
a,b,c
be sides of atriangle with area
Δ
. If 
r,s,t 
are any realnumbers, then prove that
.4
2
abrscatr bcst ct bsar 
  
 
Solution.
Let
α
,
β 
,
γ
 
be the angles of thetriangle. We first observe that
   
2222222222
sinsinsin4
accbba
 and cos 2
θ 
 
= 1
2sin
2
 
θ 
. So we can try toset
n
= 2,
x=ar, y=bs, z=ct 
. Indeed, after applying Klamkin’s inequality, we getthe result.
Example 4.
Let
a,b,c
be sides of atriangle with area
Δ
. Prove that
.4
2222222222
accbbacba
  
 
Comment:
It may seem that we can useexample 3 by setting
r=a, s=b, t=c
, butunfortunately
222222
3
accbba
 holds only when
a=b=c
by the AM-GMinequality.
Solution.
To solve this one, we bring inthe circumradius
R
of the triangle. Werecall that 2
Δ=
bc
sin
α
and by extendedsine law, 2
R=a/ 
(sin
α
). So 4
Δ
R
=
abc.
Now we set
r=bcx, s=cay
and
t=abz 
.Then the inequality in example 3becomes
.)(
22222
xyczxbyzaRyx
(*)Next, we set
yz 
=1/
b
2
,
zx
=1/
c
2
,
xy
=1/
a
2
,from which we can solve for 
x,y,z 
to get
.4,4,4
2
RaRcyRbacbx
 Then (*) becomes
.4
2222222222
accbbacba
  
 
 
Mathematical Excalibur
, Vol. 15, No. 4, Jan. 11
Page 2
 
Example 5.
(
1998 Korean MathOlympiad 
) Postive real numbers
a,b,c
 satisfy
a+b+c=abc
. Prove that
23111111
222
cba
 and determine when equality holds.
Solution.
Let
a
= tan
u
,
b
= tan
v
and
c
=tan
w
, where
u,v,w
> 0. Thentan
u
+tan
v
+tan
w
= tan
u
tan
v
tan
w
,which can be written as
).tan(tantan1tantantan
wvwvwvu
 This implies
u+v+w=n
π 
for some oddpositive integer 
n
. Let
α
= u/n
,
β 
= v/n
 and
γ
= w/n
. Taking
x = y = z 
= 1 inKlamkin’s inequality (as in example 1),we have
2/3coscoscos
   
nnn
,which is the desired inequality.Equality holds if and only if 
a = b = c
=
.3
 For the next two examples, we willintroduce the following
Fact:
Three positive real numbers
x,y,z 
 satisfy the equation
x
2
+
y
2
+
2
+
xyz 
= 4 (**)if and only if there exists an acutetriangle with angles
α
,
β 
,
γ
such that
x
= 2cos
α
,
y
= 2cos
β 
,
= 2cos
γ
.
Proof.
If 
x,y,z 
> 0 and
x
2
+
y
2
+
2
+
xyz 
= 4,then
x
2
,
y
2
,
2
< 4. So 0 <
x, y, z 
< 2.Hence, there are positive
α
,
β 
,
γ
<
π 
/2such that
x
= 2cos
α
,
y
= 2cos
 
β 
and
= 2cos
γ
.Substituting these into (**) andsimplifying, we get cos
γ
=
cos (
α
+
β 
),which implies
α
+
β 
+
 
γ
 
=
 
π 
. We can getthe converse by using trigonometricidentities.
Example 6.
(
36 
th
IMO Shortlisted Problem
) Let
a,b,c
be positive realnumbers. Determine all positive realnumbers
x,y,z 
satisfying the system of equations
x+y+z = a+b+c
,4
xyz 
(
a
2
x
+
b
2
y
+
c
2
) =
abc
.
Solution.
We can rewrite the secondequation as
.4
222
      
xyz abcxyczxbyz a
 By the fact, there exists an acute trianglewith angles
α
,
β 
,
γ
such that
.cos2,cos2,cos2
   
xyczxbyz a
 Then the first equation becomes
).coscoscos(2
   
xyzxyz yx
 From the equality case of Klamkin’sinequality, we get
.sinsinsin
   
yx
 Squaring both sides and using
,2cos,2cos,2cos
xyczxbyz a
   
 we can solve for 
x,y,z 
as.2,2,2
baacycbx
 
Example 7.
(2007
IMO Chinese TeamTraining Test 
) Positive real numbers
u,v,w
 satisfy the equation
.4
uvwwvu
 Prove that
.
wvuwuvvuwuvw
 
Solution.
By the fact, there exists an acutetriangle with angles
α
,
β 
,
γ
such that
.cos2,cos2,cos2
   
wvu
 The desired inequality becomes
        
coscoscos2coscoscos2coscoscos2
 ).coscos(cos4
222
   
 Comparing with Klamkin’s inequality, allwe have to do is to take
n
= 1 and
      
coscoscos2,coscoscos2
yx
.coscoscos2
   
 
Example 8.
(
29
th
IMO Shortlisted Problem
) Let
n
be an integer greater than1. For 
i
=1,2,…,
n
,
α
i
> 0,
β 
i
> 0 and
niinii
11
.
   
 Prove that
niiniii
11
.cotsincos
   
 
Solution.
For 
n
= 2, we have equality
11112211
sincossincossincossincos
        
 
.cotcot0
21
  
 For 
n
= 3,
α
1
,
 
α
2
,
 
α
3
are angles of atriangle, say with opposite sides
a,b,c
.Let
Δ
be the area of the triangle. Now2
Δ
 
=
bc
sin
α
1
 
=
ca
sin
α
2
=
ab
sin
α
3
.Combining with the cosine law, we get
4sincoscot
222111
acb
   
 and similarly for cot
α
2
and cot
α
3
. ByKlamkin’s inequality,
)coscoscos(2 sincos4
3211
     
abcabc
niii
 
31222
.cot4
ii
cba
 
 Cancelling 4
Δ
, we will finish the case
n
= 3. For the case
n
> 3, suppose thecase
n
1 is true. We have
)sin()cos(sincossincossincos
212122111
          
niii
 
)sin()cos(sincos
21213
      
niii
 
))(sin())(cos(sincossincos
21212211
          
 
)sin()cos(sincos
21213
      
niii
 
))(cot(cotcot
2121
     
 
nii
321
)cot(cot
   
 
nii
1
.cot
 
 This finishes the induction.
References
[1] M.S.Klamkin, “
Asymetric TriangleInequalities
,” Publ.Elektrotehn. Fak.Ser. Mat. Fiz. Univ. Beograd, No.357-380 (1971) pp. 33-44.[2] Zhu Hua-Wei,
From Mathematical Competitions to Competition Mathe-matics
, Science Press, 2009 (inChinese).
 
Mathematical Excalibur
, Vol. 15, No. 4, Jan. 11
Page 3
 
Problem Corner
 We welcome readers to submit their solutions to the problems posed belowfor publication consideration. Thesolutions should be preceded by thesolver’s name, home (or email) addressand school affiliation. Please sendsubmissions to
Dr. Kin Y. Li,Department of Mathematics, The Hong Kong University of Science &Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon,Hong Kong.
The deadline for sendingsolutions is
February 28, 2011.
Problem 361.
Among all real numbers
a
and
b
satisfying the property that theequation
x
4
+
ax
3
+
bx
2
+
ax
+1=0 has a realroot, determine the minimum possiblevalue of 
a
2
+
b
2
with proof.
Problem 362.
Determine all positiverational numbers
x,y,z 
such that
yxxyz yx
111,,
 are integers.
Problem 363.
Extend side
CB
of triangle
ABC 
beyond
B
to a point
D
 such that
DB=AB
. Let
be themidpoint of side
AC 
. Let the bisector of 
ABC 
intersect line
DM 
at
. Provethat
BAP 
=
ACB
.
Problem 364.
Eleven robbers own atreasure box. What is the least number of locks they can put on the box so thatthere is a way to distribute the keys of the locks to the eleven robbers with nofive of them can open all the locks, butevery six of them can open all the locks?The robbers agree to make enoughduplicate keys of the locks for this planto work.
Problem 365.
For nonnegative realnumbers
a,b,c
satisfying
ab+bc+ca
= 1,prove that
.21111
cbaaccbba
 *****************
Solutions
****************
Problem 356.
A
and
B
alternately color points on an initially colorless plane asfollow.
A
plays first. When
A
takes histurn, he will choose a point not yetcolored and paint it red. When
B
takeshis turn, he will choose 2010 points notyet colored and paint them blue. When theplane contains three red points that are thevertices of an equilateral triangle, then
A
 wins. Following the rules of the game, can
B
stop
A
from winning?
Solution.
 
LI Pak Hin
(PLK Vicwood K.T. Chong Sixth Form College),
AnnaPUN Ying
(HKU Math) and
The 7BMathematics Group
(Carmel Alison LamFoundation Secondary School).The answer is negative. In the first 2
n
 moves,
A
can color 
n
red points
on a line
,while
B
can color 2010
n
blue points. For each pair of the
n
red points
A
colored,there are two points (on the perpendicular bisector of the pair) that can be chosen asvertices for making equilateral triangleswith the pair. When
n
> 2011, we have
.2010)1( 22
nnnn
  
 Then
B
cannot stop
A
from winning.
Other commended solvers:
King’sCollege Problem Solving Team (AngusCHUNG, Raymond LO, BenjaminLUI)
,
Andy LOO
(St. Paul’s Co-edCollege),
Emanuele NATALE
(Universitàdi Roma “Tor Vergata”, Roma, Italy) and
Lorenzo PASCALI
(Università di Roma“La Sapienza”, Roma, Italy),
WONG SzeNga
(Diocesan Girls’ School).
Problem 357.
Prove that for everypositive integer 
n
, there do not exist four integers
a, b, c, d 
such that
ad=bc
and
n
2
<
a
<
b
<
c
<
< (
n
+1)
2
.
Solution.
U. BATZORIG
(NationalUniversity of Mongolia) and
LI Pak Hin
 (PLK Vicwood K. T. Chong Sixth FormCollege).We first prove a useful
Fact (Four Number Theorem)
: Let
a,b,c,d 
 be positive integers with
ad=bc
, then thereexists positive integers
p,q,r,s
such that
a=pq, b=qr, c=ps, d=rs.
 To see this, let
p
=gcd(
a,c
), then
p
|
a
and
p
|
c.
 So
q
=
a
/
p
and
s
=
c
/
p
are positive integers.Now
p
=gcd(
a,c
) implies gcd(
q,s
)=1. From
ad=bc
, we get
qd=sb
. Then
s
|
. So
=
/
s
isa positive integer and
a=pq, b=qr, c=ps,d=rs.
 For the problem, assume
a,b,c,d 
exist asrequired. Applying the fact, since
>
b
>
a
, we get
s
>
q
and
>
p
. Then
s
q
+1,
p
+1and we get
2
)1()1)(1(
pqqprs
 
,)1()1(
22
na
 a contradiction.
Other commended solvers:
King’sCollege Problem Solving Team(Angus CHUNG, Raymond LO,Benjamin LUI)
,
Anna PUN Ying
(HKU Math),
The 7B MathematicsGroup
(Carmel Alison Lam FoundationSecondary School) and
WONG SzeNga
(Diocesan Girls’ School).
Problem 358.
 
ABCD
is a cyclicquadrilateral with
AC 
intersects
BD
at
. Let
E, F, G, H 
be the feet of perpendiculars from
to sides
AB, BC,CD, DA
respectively. Prove that lines
EH, BD, FG
are concurrent or areparallel.
Solution.
U. BATZORIG
(NationalUniversity of Mongolia),
King’sCollege Problem Solving Team(Angus CHUNG, Raymond LO,Benjamin LUI)
,
Abby LEE ShingChi
(SKH Lam Woo MemorialSecondary School),
LI Pak Hin
(PLK Vicwood K. T. Chong Sixth FormCollege),
Anna PUN Ying
(HKUMath),
Anderson TORRES
(São Paulo,Brazil) and
WONG Sze Nga
(DiocesanGirls’ School).
DAB
 
G
 Since
ABCD
is cyclic,
BAC 
=
CDB
 and
ABD
=
DCA
, which imply
Δ
APB
 and
Δ
DPC 
are similar. As
and
G
arefeet of perpendiculars from
to thesetriangles (and similarity implies the
 
corresponding segments of triangles areproportional), we get
AE/EB=DG/GC 
.Similarly, we get
AH/HD=BF/FC 
.If 
EH 
||
BD
, then
AE/EB = AH/HD
,which is equivalent to
 
DG/GC=BF/FC 
,and hence
 
FG
||
BD
.Otherwise, lines
EH 
and
BD
intersect atsome point
. By Menelaus theorem andits converse, we have
,1
HADH IDBI EBAE 
 
which is equivalent to

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