The main character of this method is that researcher has no control over the variables.He can only report what has happened or what is happening.
Most Ex post facto research projects are used for descriptive studies in which theresearcher seeks to measure such items like frequency of shopping, preferences of people, etc. Researcher also tries to discover causes even when they cannot controlthe variables.
The researcher has to use facts or information already available andanalyse these to make critical evaluations of material.
2). Applied Vs Fundamental
Applied – action; Fundamental – basic or pure.
Applied Research –
Finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or anindustry
business organization. Eg.- research aimed at certain conclusions. Facing aconcrete social or business problem is an example of applied research.Identifying social, economical or political trends that may particular institution are copyresearch or marketing or evaluation research
Fundamental Research –
It is mainly concerned with generalisation and with theformulation of theory. Eg- Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake. It is a researchconcerning some natural phenomenon or relating to pure mathematics. Also it is concerninghuman behaviour carried on with a view to make generalisation of human behaviour. Thusthe central aim of applied research is to discover a solution for some practical problem, whereas fundamental research is finding information that has a broad base of applications and thus,adds to the already existing body of scientific knowledge.
3). Quantitative Vs Qualitative
Quantitative research –
Based on measurement of quantity or amount, that can be expressedin terms of quantity.
Qualitative research –
Relating to qualitative phenomena involving quality or kind. Eg.-why people think or do certain things.When we talk of “motivation research”, this research aims at discovering the underlyingmotives and desires, using in depth interviews for that purpose. Other techniques of suchresearch are word association, sentence completion test, story completion, attitude or opinionresearch.
4). Conceptual Vs Empirical
related ideas or theories used by philosophers and thinkers to develop newconcepts or to reinterpret existing ones.
Experience or observation alone, without due regard for systems and theory. It isdata based research coming up with conclusions which are capable of verification byobservations and experiment.
5). Some other type of research:-