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NASA Facts Manned Space Flight Project Apollo

NASA Facts Manned Space Flight Project Apollo

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Published by Bob Andrepont

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Published by: Bob Andrepont on Mar 18, 2011
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05/23/2013

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...
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Vol. III,
No.
1
NASA
FACTS
An
Educational Services
Publicatio
n
of
the
National
Aeronautics
and
Space
Administration
MANNED
SPACE
FLIGHT
GPO PRICE
$ _
~
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~
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PROJECT
APOLLO
CFS
TI
PRICE(S)
$ _
____
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Hard
copy
(He)
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ff
653 July 65
N
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25367
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(
CA-;aLYl
Page 1
(ILLUSTRATION
BY
NOR
TH
AMERICAN
AV
IA
TION)
NEXT
STOP, THE
MOON-Two
astronauts transfer Into
LEM
(Lunar
Excursian
Module)
to
des
c
end fo
rex
ploration
of
the
moon
.
---------
--
---------
 
Page
2
PROJECT
APOLLO
Project
Apollo
is
Step
3
of
NASA's
manned
space
flight
lunar landing
program.
Its
goal:
to
put
men
on the
moon
and
return
them
safely
to
earth
by
the end
of
this
decade.
In
Step
1,
Project
Mercury paved
the
way
by
developing
one man
space
vehicles
and
techniques
for
their
use.
Step
2 is
Project
Gemini,
using
two-manspacecraft,
for
longer orbital
mis
sions
and
for
developing
thetechnique
of
ren
dezvous
anddocking, during
which
two
space
vehicles
are maneuvered
close
together
and
joined
or
"docked."
The
technique
of
orbital
rendezvous-in
orbit
around
the
moon-will
be
a
key maneuver
inProject
Apollo
to
achieve
lunar
landings.
PROJECT
APOLLO'S
GOALMajor
elementsin basic
planning
for
Project
Apollo
included:
Design
and
construction
of
a
blunt-cone
spacecraft
different
from
the bell shaped
Mercury
and
Gemini
vehicles.
Development
of
a
powerful
launch
vehicle,
the
Saturn
V,
with
7.5
million
pounds booster
thrust,
equal
to that
of
21
Atlas
boosters.
(Atlas
was the
launch vehicle
for
Mercury
manned flights.)
The Lunar
Orbit
Rendezvous (LOR)
flight
plan
for
themoon
landing
mission.
L
OR
was
chosen
after
careful review
of
threepossible methods, the
other
two
being
(1
,)
direct
flight
from earth
surface
to
moon
surface
and
PROJECT
APOLLO
LUNAR
LANDING
FLIGHT
TECHNIQUES
'
~
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\
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- - ~ ~ 
; ~
~
.
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DIRECT
EARTH
ORBITLUNAR ORBITRENDEZVOUSRENDEZVOUS
'.
NASA
FACTS
Vol.
III,
No. 1
(2)
Earth
Orbit
Rendezvous
(EOR),
launching
two
payloads from
the earth
andjoining
themin
earth
orbit
into
a
single
spacecraft
capab
le
of
the
moon journey.
LOR
was
selected:
it
calls
for
launch
of
one
spacecraft from earth to
lunar
orbit,
and detachment
of
a
Lunar
Excursion
Module to land
on
the
moon
and
then
return
to
the
moon-orbiting
vehicle.
This
reduced
sharply
the
requirement
for
thrust
capability
as
compared with
landing
the entire
spacecraft
as
sembly
on
the
lunar
surface,
as in
the
direct
and
EOR
methods.
In
fact,
LOR
reducedthe
total weight
require-
ment
for
the
lunar bound spacecraft, leaving
earth, to
about
45
tons,
as
compared with
100
tons
for
an
EOR
vehicle.
Also,
instead
of
twobig
boosters
for
EOR,
the
LOR
method
requires
only
one.
Not
only
fuel
but
time
will
be
saved,
also
a
great
~ e a l 
of
expensive
hardware.
These
factors
made
LOR
the best
choice.
Apollo
hardware-launch
vehicles
spacecraft
,
,
and
their
instrumentation-is
under
development
today.
Astronauts meanwhile are
in
training
for
the
I
unar
touchdown goal.
Barring unforeseen
set
backs,
Project
Apollo
will
fulfill
the
late
President
Kennedy's
timetable
(inhis
message
to
Con
gress
in
May
1961)
and
meet the man-on-the
moon
goal
he
gave
America-"within
this
decade."
APOLLO SPACECRAFT
The
Apollo
spacecraft
is
to
be
84
feet
tall
and
weigh
about
45
tons. It
is
divided
into
i
I
-
=--------------
 
NASA
FACTS
Vol.
III,
No. 1
APOLLO
SPACECRAFT
COMMAND
MODULE
HEAT SHIELD
RENDEZVOUS
WINDOW
-------,
CREW
HATCH
WINDOW
--------,
DOCKING
HATCH
BONDED
ALUMINUM HONEYCOMBINNER
STRUCTURE-------6
BRAZEDSTAINLESS
STEEL
HONEYCOMB
HEATSHIELD
SUBSTRUCTURE------1II
SIDE
WINDOW
- - - - - - j ~ r - = r ~ ~ . , , \ - ~ 
BRAZEDSTAINLESS
STEEL
~ ~ : : = = b ~ 
HONEYCOMB
HEATSHIELD
SUBSTRUCTURE-------------"
(LEM)
three
modules
(separable
units
or
"blocks"),
an
adapter, and
a
launch
escape
system.
COMMAND
MODULE
First
is
the Command
Module
(CM),
the
only
section
that
returns
to earth.
It
contains thecrew's
living
compartment,
plus all
controls
for
the
various
in-flight
maneuvers.
Shaped
like a
flattenedcone,
this
modulehas
a
bottom
width
of
13
feet
and
stands
about
11
feet
high. Takeoff
weight
is
about
11,000
pounds.
The
double
walledpressurized
chamber
has three
windows
in front
of the
astronauts'
couches,
and
two
side
windows
for views into
space.
Page
3
COMMAND
MODULE
SERVICE
MODULE
Similar
to Gemini,
the
Apollo
EnvironmentControl System
(ECS)
supplies pure
oxygen
in
the
cabin
at
5 psi
(pounds per
square
inch),
air
conditionedto
a
temperature
of approximately
75
0
with a
humidity
index between
40%
and
70%.
More
elaborately
equipped
for
human
com
fort
than either
the
Mercury
or
Gemini
space
craft, the
Apollo
CM
is
a
compact
version
of
apilot
cockpit
for
three astronauts.
The
Apollo
crew
will
be
in
touch
with
earth
by
television
as
well
as
radio.
LAUNCH
ESCAPE
TOWER
Perched
on
top
the
Command
Module
is aLaunch
Escape
System
tower
with
rocket motors,
much like
that
of
Mercury,
which
is
34
feet
tall
and
weighs
6,600
pounds.
This
towerand
motorsgive
thelaunch
pad
Apollo
spacecraft,
without
its
booster,
a
total height of
some
84
feet-almost
as
tall
as
the
combined
Mercury
Atlas vehicle
that
orbited JohnGlenn.
The
tower
and
motors
are
jettisoned
after
thelaunchvehicle's
second
stage
ignites. The sys
tem
would
be
used
only
ina
launch
emergency
situation.

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