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27539591 Glossary SPM Chemistry

27539591 Glossary SPM Chemistry

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Published by: Naguib Zakaria on Mar 18, 2011
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A
Acid
An acid is a substance that contains hydrogenions, H
+
, as the only positive ions in an aqueoussolution.
Acid-base titration
A quantitative experimental technique used tocarry out complete neutralisation reaction betweenan acid and an alkali
Activation energy 
Minimum energy the reactant particles must havebeore eective collision between them can resultin a chemical reaction
Alcohol
A homologous series containing the hydroxylgroup, –OH, with the general ormula C
n
H
2
n
+1
OH,where
n
= 1, 2, 3, …
Alkali
A base that is soluble in water
Alkane
Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons with thegeneral ormula C
n
H
2
n
+2
, where
n
= 1, 2, 3,
Alkene
Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons with thegeneral ormula C
n
H
2
n
, where
n
= 2, 3, 4,
Alloy 
A mixture o two or more metals (sometimes non-metals) in a specic proportion. Te added metalsare usually in small amounts
Analgesic
A modern medicine that relieves pain
Anion
Te negative ion that is ormed when an atomgains electrons
Anode
An electrode which is connected to the positiveterminal o a battery 
Antibiotic
A modern medicine that kills bacteria
Antioxidant
A ood additive that prevents oxidation o ood
Atom
Te smallest particle o an element that canparticipate in a chemical reaction
Avogadro constant
Te number o particles in one mole o any substance, which reers to the value o 6.02 × 10
23
 mol
-1
B
Base
A substance that reacts with an acid to give only asalt and water
C
Carbon compound
A compound that contains carbon combined withother elements
Carboxylic acid
A homologous series containing the carboxyl group,–COOH, with the general ormula C
n
H
2
n
+1
COOH,where
n
= 0, 1, 2, …
Catalyst
A substance which increases the rate o a chemicalreaction, without itsel being chemically changedat the end o the reaction
Cathode
An electrode which is connected to the negativeterminal o a battery 
Cation
Te positive ion that is ormed when an atom loseselectrons
Coagulation o latex 
Separation o rubber molecules rom the water inthe latex
 
Collision theory 
A theory used to explain the rate o chemicalreactions in terms o eective collisions betweenparticles
Composite material
An advanced material that is ormed by combiningtwo or more dierent materials. Te properties o this new material are more superior compared tothose o its original materials
Compound
A substance that contains two or more elementsthat are chemically bonded
Concentration
Te concentration o a solution is the amount o asolute that dissolved in a unit volume o a solution.Te concentration o a solution can be expressedin terms o gram o solute per litre (dm
3
) o asolution, g dm
-3
, or number o moles o solute perlitre (dm
-3
) o solution, mol dm
-3
Condensation
Process o changing gas to liquid
Conductor
A substance which conducts electricity but doesnot change chemically during the conduction
Contact process
An industrial process to manuacture sulphuricacid rom sulphur
Covalent bond
A bond that is ormed between atoms o non-metalsby overlapping their outermost shells. In covalentbonding, each atom in a molecule contributes anequal number o electrons or sharing.
Crystallisation
A technique used to prepare crystals o a substancerom its saturated solution
D
Decomposition
A chemical reaction in which a compound isbroken down into simpler substances
Dehydration
A reaction where water molecules are removedrom the reactants
Detergent
Te sodium salt ormed when an alkyl hydrogensulphate is neutralised by an alkali (sodiumhydroxide)
Diusion
Te movement o particles o a substance romhigher concentration to a medium o lowerconcentration
Dilution
Addition o a solvent to a more concentratedsolution to produce a more diluted solution
Distillation
Process o extracting a substance by vapourisingit and then condensing the vapour at a xedtemperature
Dye
A ood additive that colours ood or replaces lostcolours
E
Electrochemical series
A list o metals arranged in descending order o their atomsí tendency to lose electrons to ormpositive ions. Te more electropositive metals areplaced higher up in the series.
Electrode
An electric conductor which carries electriccurrent in and out o an electrolyte
Electrolysis
Te conductivity o electricity in an electrolyte,leading to its decomposition to its constituentelements
Electrolyte
Electrolytes are compounds that conduct electricity in a molten state or in anaqueous solution and are decomposed to theirconstituent elements in the process.
Electron
A negatively-charged subatomic particle thatsurrounds the nucleus o an atom
Electron arrangement
Te way electrons are arranged in an atom
Empirical ormula
Te chemical ormula which shows the simplestwhole number ratio o the atoms o each elementpresent in a compound
 
Endothermic reaction
A chemical reaction that absorbs heat energy romthe surroundings
Energy level diagram
A graph that shows the energy content o reactantsand products with the energy change o a chemicalreaction
Energy profle diagram
A graph that shows the energy change as reactantschange to become products in a chemical reaction
Ester
A homologous series containing the carboxylategroup, –COO–, with the general ormulaC
n
H
2
n
+1
COOC
m
H
2
m
+1
, where
n
= 0, 1, 2, … and
m
= 1, 2, 3, …
Esterifcation
Te reaction between a carboxylic acid and analcohol to orm an ester and water. Te reaction iscatalysed by concentrated sulphuric acid.
Evaporation
Te change o a liquid into a gas at the surace o a liquid
Exothermic reaction
A chemical reaction that releases heat energy tothe surroundings
Extraction o metal
Te process o obtaining a metal rom its ore
F
Fat
A natural ester o atty acid and glycerol
Fatty acid
A carboxylic acid that has a long chain o about10 to 20 carbon atoms. It has only one carboxylgroup.
Fermentation
Te reaction in which yeast converts glucose intoethanol
Filtration
Te separation o a solid and a liquid by pouringthe mixture into a porous material such as lterpaper. Te liquid passing through the lter paper iscalled ltrate. Te solid trapped on the lter paperis called the residue.
Flavouring agent
A ood additive that gives favour to ood orenhances its natural favour
Food additive
Any substance that is added to ood to preserve itor improve its favour and appearance
Fractional distillation
Te separation o two liquids with dierent boilingpoints by distillation using a ractionating column
Functional group
An atom or a group o atoms that is responsibleor the characteristic chemical properties o anorganic compound
G
Glycerol
An alcohol that has three hydroxyl groups
Group
Te vertical columns o elements in the Periodicable. Te group number is determined by thenumber o valence electrons in the atoms o theelements
H
Haber process
An industrial process to manuacture ammoniarom nitrogen and hydrogen
Hal-equation
An ionic equation showing either oxidation orreduction that explicitly shows the electronsinvolved
Heat o combustion
Te amount o heat given o when one mole o asubstance is completely burnt in excess oxygen
Heat o displacement
Te amount o heat energy given o when one moleo metal is displaced rom its aqueous solution (by the more electropositive metal) under standardconditions
Heat o neutralisation
Te amount o heat given o when one mole o water is produced rom the neutralisation reactionbetween an acid and an alkali under standardconditions
Heat o precipitation
Te amount o heat given o when one mole o precipitate is ormed when mixing the aqueoussolutions o the ions o insoluble salt understandard conditions

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