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Fractal Geometry and Spatial Phenomena
A Bibliography
January 1991Mark MacLennan, A. Stewart Fotheringham, and Michael BattyNCGIADepartment of GeographyState University at BuffaloBuffalo, NY 14261Paul A. LongleyWales and South West England Regional Research LaboratoryUniversity of WalesCardiff CF1 3YNNational Center for Geographic Information and AnalysisReport 91-1
 
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE ......................................................................................... 3I. GENERAL REFERENCES ......................................................... 4I.1 TEXTS ................................................................................. 4I.2 JOURNAL ARTICLES .............................................................. 5II. MEASUREMENT ISSUES........................................................... 8II.1 ESTIMATION OF FRACTAL DIMENSION - GENERAL ISSUES .......... 8II.2 ESTIMATION OF FRACTAL DIMENSION FOR CURVES/PROFILES ... 9II.3 ESTIMATION OF FRACTAL DIMENSION FOR SURFACES ............... 10II.4 SPACE FILLING CURVES ......................................................... 11III APPLICATIONS ...................................................................... 13III.1 CARTOGRAPHIC GENERALIZATION .......................................... 13III.2 LENGTH ESTIMATES AND SELF-SIMILIARITY OF LINES ............... 14III.3 VISUAL PERCEPTION .............................................................. 15III.4 TERRAIN CHARACTERIZATION ................................................ 16III.5 METEOROLOGY ...................................................................... 20III.6 OCEANOGRAPHY ................................................................... 22III.7 GEOMORPHOLOGY/HYDROLOGY .............................................. 24III.8 HYDRAULICS AND FLUID MECHANICS ...................................... 28III.9 EARTH SCIENCES ................................................................... 28III.10 ECOLOGY/LANDSCAPE ............................................................ 34III.11 URBAN STRUCTURES ............................................................. 36III.12 HUMAN GEOGRAPHY............................................................... 37III.13 REMOTE SENSING .................................................................. 37III.14 IMAGE COMPRESSION ............................................................ 38III.15 IMAGE PROCESSING ............................................................... 40III.16 FRACTAL SYNTHESIS ............................................................. 44IV. MISCELLANEOUS.................................................................... 47
 
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PREFACE
Fractal research seems to have permeated most, if not all, areas of research concerned withform, from the micro-level aggregation of water molecules or particles of zinc oxide to themacro analysis of the structure of landmasses and cities. Given that the study of spatialform and its links to spatial processes is one of basic research areas within Geography, itis not surprising that research on fractals can be found in many subfields of the discipline,including geomorphology, climatology, urban and regional analysis, cartography, andremote sensing.Within this working paper, we provide a sample of the growing literature in this area. Theemphasis is on references that have appeared in the published literature. The bibliographyis arranged in three sections: general references; measurement issues; and applications.Each of these general topics is further subdivided. While we have attempted to be asconsistent as possible in our indexing, there are many references that could be placed inmore than one category and in some cases the decision into which category they are placedhas been somewhat subjective. To minimize this problem, in some cases where areference clearly spans two or more of our subheadings, we have listed the reference morethan once. Additional references of interest but which do not fall into any of thedesignated categories are listed at the end of this bibliography under the heading of miscellaneous.The concepts associated with fractal analysis have been discussed at the SpecialistMeetings of Initiatives 1 (The Accuracy of Spatial Data) and 3 (Multiple Representations)and we acknowledge these meetings as a source of inspiration for the development of thisbibliography. We would also like to acknowledge the financial support of the NationalCenter for Geographic Information and Analysis under NSF grant (SES-8810917).

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