Biogas Technology - Solution in Search of Its Problem
A Study of Small-Scale Rural Technology Introduction and Integration
Ph. Lic. thesis, English text by Mathias Gustavsson (firstname.lastname@example.org),Göteborg University, Department for Interdisciplinary Studies of the Human Condi-tion, Human Ecology Section, Brogatan 4, Box 700, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden
This thesis aims to present and problematise perspectives of processes involved indiffusion of small-scale rural technology in Third World Countries. The focus is onprocesses that are initiated and upheld by organisations or governments, so-calledinduced diffusion processes. Diffusion of technology is viewed from two perspec-tives, (i) introduction of technology and (ii) integration of technology. The introduc-tion perspective relates to how the technology is made available and accessible to theusers. The integration perspective relates to the effects of the technology when it isintegrated into the livelihood systems of the users.The diffusion of small-scale domestic biogas units in India was studied. Secondarysources and interviews constitute the main source of information. In India a Govern-ment programme promoting biogas technology has facilitated the installation of morethan 2.7 million biogas units in rural areas. The users of the technology are thewomen in the household. Even though this is acknowledged, women have had littleinfluence on the development of the technology
, and the implementationprocess. The integration of biogas technology in the user's (women) livelihood systemraises a number of questions regarding how well adapted the technology really is tothe local conditions.The analysis in this thesis shows that the introduction of the technology has beensuccessful, while the integration of the technology has been less successful in differ-ent socio-ecological situations. A distinction has to be made between practical experi-enced benefits, and potential benefits. While the local knowledge dimension is linkedto the practical experienced benefits, potential benefits are based on knowledge fromthe global knowledge dimension. The gap between these knowledge dimensionsmakes identification of benefits, or problems that a specific technology solves acrucial issue in the diffusion process.
Diffusion of technology, introduction of technology, integration of technology, livelihood,India, rural, biogas technology, energy, gender, knowledge, development, human ecology.