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Table Of Contents

OUR CULTURAL LEGACY
WHY THINK?
Thoughts Richer Than Gold
Thinking as Possibility
Thoughts Accumulate
Life Without Thinking
WHAT IS THINKING?
The Mystery
Toward a Definition: Thinking as Communicating
The Centrality of Thinking
COMMUNICATING: THE MIRROR OF THOUGHT
Thinking as Dialogue: Validation and Insight
MISTHINKING
SUMMARY
THINKING CHALLENGES
ENCULTURATION
Sources of Enculturation
Some Common American Beliefs
Religion and Enculturation
SELF-CONCEPT
EGO DEFENSES
Denial
Projection
Rationalization
SELF-SERVING BIASES
Other Attribution Errors
Self-Serving Biases?
THE ROLE OF EXPECTATIONS AND SCHEMATA
Anger
Passion
Depression
STRIVING FOR COGNITIVE CONSISTENCY
STRESS
Signs and Symptoms of Stress
THE DECEPTION OF OUR SENSES
SHARPENING OUR SENSES
POWERFUL LISTENING
The Paradox of Powerful Listening
How to Listen
SENSING AND THINKING CHALLENGES
THE MYSTERY
THINKING AND OUR BRAIN
Food and Drugs
Sleep
Our Thinking Potential
Brain and Mind
THINKING AND MEMORY
BRAIN AND MEMORY CHALLENGES
LANGUAGE AND OUR MIND
The Universalizing Power of Language
The Structuring Power of Language
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
THE METAPHORICAL POWER OF LANGUAGE
What Is a Metaphor?
Metaphorical Models Control Thinking
THE LIMITATIONS OF LANGUAGE
Language, Lawyers, and Lawmakers
THE POWER OF ENGLISH
WordMeanings
WordOrder Creates Meaning
The Power Parts: Noun and Verb
Thinking and the Context
Clarity
THE PITFALLS OF ENGLISH
Generalizations and Abstractions
Clearly Embarrassing
Wordiness
Redundancies
High Specificity
Illogicalities
Clichés
LANGUAGE CHALLENGES
FEELINGS AND THINKING
CULTURAL CONTEXT
Business
Church
Family
THE FORCE BEHIND OUR THOUGHTS
Beneath the Rational Surface
The Importance of Tone
GENERATING SPEECH
GENERATING WRITING
The Inspiration Method
The Recollection Method
The Conscious Selection Method
FEELINGS TOWARD TOPIC AND AUDIENCE
THINKING AND FEELING CHALLENGES
WHAT IS CREATIVITY?
METAPHORICAL THINKING
KINDS OF CREATIVE THINKING
WHO CAN THINK CREATIVELY?
CONDITIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF CREATIVITY
BEGINNING TO CREATE
Brainstorming
Starbursting
COAXING CREATIVITY
Step 1: Desire
Step 2: Knowledge and Skills
Step 3: Edisonian Effort
Step 4: Fermentation and Insight
Step 5: Evaluation
Leonardo da Vinci
CREATING THINKING CHALLENGES
ORIGINS OF ORDER
NATURAL/MENTAL ORDERS
Topical Order
Analogical Order
Chronological Order
Causal Order
MENTAL ORDERS
Clarity and Memory
STEPS IN ORGANIZING
Clustering
Analyzing
Prioritizing
USING THE ORDERS
Curtain Call
ORGANIZING CHALLENGES
DEDUCTIVE THINKING: THE SYLLOGISM
CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISMS
Three Kinds of Propositions
Four Figures
Validity of Categorical Syllogisms
ENTHYMEMES AND SYLLOGISMS IN EVERYDAY LIFE
SOFT DEDUCTIONS
REASONING ERRORS IN CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISMS
Undistributed Middle
Illicit Process
The Four-Terms Fallacy
Equivocation
The Importance of Agreed Meaning
RULES FOR THE CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM
HYPOTHETICAL SYLLOGISMS
Reasoning Errors in Hypothetical Syllogisms
DISJUNCTIVE SYLLOGISMS
Reasoning Error in the Disjunctive Syllogism
VALID CONVERSIONS
INFORMAL DEDUCTIVE FALLACIES
The Fallacy of Division
Circular Reasoning
The Either/Or Fallacy
Reductio ad Absurdum
INDUCTIVE THINKING
ANALOGICAL ARGUMENT
Chuang Tzu’s Analogies
CAUSATION
INFORMAL INDUCTIVE FALLACIES
Hasty Generalization
LOGIC CHALLENGES
1.Observation
Observation
Hypothesis
Experimentation
Verification
Science and Other Ways of Knowing
Copernicus and Galileo
THE EMPIRICAL NATURE OF SCIENCE
Erroneous Operational Definitions
Operational Debates
The Limits of Science
SCIENCE AND THE UNDERSTANDING OF HUMAN NATURE
Determinism as Foundation
Human Beings and Determinism
PROVING A THEORY
Determinism and Probability
CONTROLLED EXPERIMENTS
CORRELATIONAL DESIGNS
EXPERIMENTER BLAS
Sizeable Effects
The Placebo Effect
THE SURVEY
Cases of Fraud
CASE STUDIES
Pseudoscience
SCIENTIFIC THINKING CHALLENGES
WHAT IS PERSUASION?
THE ETHICS OF PERSUASION
THINKING ABOUT WHAT MOVES US
Knowledge
Objectivity and Honesty
Biases
Confucius, Christ, and Kant
Likability
Motivation and Purpose
The Rational Appeal
The Emotional Appeal: The Root Elements
THINKING ABOUT WHAT MOVES OUR AUDIENCE
Demographics
Values and Needs
Adjusting Our Goals
ORGANIZING FOR PERSUASION
Step 1: Establishing Credibility
Step 2: Acknowledging the Audience’s Position
Step 3: Constructing Our Rationale
Step 4: Transplanting the Root Elements
Step 5: Asking for the Response
DEFENDING OURSELVES AGAINST DECEITFUL PERSUASION
Manipulative Tactics
Erroneous Attacks
Abuse of Language
PERSUASION CHALLENGES
DEFINING THE PROBLEM
Discovering Causes
Problems Without a Cause
REMOVING BARRIERS
The Myth of Perfection
The Myth of Genius
GENERATING SOLUTIONS
Gathering Information
Creating a Healthy Communication Climate
CREATIVE THINKING
SELECTING SOLUTIONS
Preliminary Evaluation
Pros and Cons
Chaotic Systems
Rejections on Minor Grounds
Subgoal Analysis
Trial and Error
Working Backwards
Problem-Solving Tips
EVALUATING SOLUTIONS
PROBLEM-SOLVING CHALLENGES
The Challenge to Go on Thinking
Descriptive and Prescriptive Principles
The Principle of Intimate Engagement
STRAIGHT-LINE PROBLEMS
MATRIX PROBLEMS
The Problem of Comprehension
Committing Information to Memory
EXERCISES FOR INTIMATE ENGAGEMENT
Special Features of the Problem Space
EXERCISES FOR SPECIAL FEATURES
BRAINSTORMING
THE INTERMEDIATE IMPOSSIBLE
RANDOM ASSOCIATIONS
ANALOGIES OR METAPHORS
SLEEP ON IT
EXERCISES FOR LATERAL THINKING
Appendix: Propositional Logic
Appendix A
Appendix B
References for Chapters 1–13
References for Chapters 14–23
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Critical Thinking

Critical Thinking

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Published by: moris_haim on Mar 19, 2011
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