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TOA

TOA

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Published by Melanie David

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Published by: Melanie David on Mar 20, 2011
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THE PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION(CONTRAST)A synthesis of all the principles is necessary in order to ensure aunified and satisfactory composition.It has been seen that the principles of composition may andshould be applied to the development of the plan of a building,but they are best illustrated in the treatment of volumes.Visible architecture, or the masses and surfaces of which it iscomposed, lends itself to critical analysis.The following discussion is concerned with the application of thebasic principles of composition to space enclosing elements.Contrast Not only is it possible for us to see a building through theelement of contrast but also the building is given beauty andinterest by the difference between types of treatment, which isintroduced.It is essential that certain areas, directions and colors vary ordiffer from others so that by contrast the qualities of each areemphasized.It is through contrast that we secure proper scale, proportionand unity and consequently a satisfactory design.Contrast of FormShapeMassContrast of LineDirectionTypeContrast of SizeGradationModularContrast of ToneTextureOpeningsContrast of Form -If form is used to mean merely surface or to imply a 2-dimensional area, there exists only the element of shape.In order for a shape to be interesting there must be variety orcontrast.If form is more properly conceived in 3 dimensions, thearchitectural result is mass or volume.Contrast of Line:Lines may vary with reference to direction.It is possible to have a horizontal line opposing a vertical ordiagonal lines may form a composition.A line may also offer contrast on account of its change in type orcharacter.It may be curved or straight, regular or irregular, broken orcontinuous.Contrast of Size:This type of contrast refers to objects, which may have the sameshape and direction but may vary in size.If this change in size is gradual and uniform, the result is calledgradation.Contrast of tone:tone may be done through contrast in texture, opening orplanes.Combinations: Various types of contrast are combined like:contrast of mass- contrast of vertical and horizontal volumescontrast of shapecontrast of toneContrast is the opposite of similarity.If similarity exists to a marked degree, the effect is monotony.On the other hand if contrast exists violently and profusely theresult will be a restless and disorganized design, which lacksrepose.Following the rule on contrast, one has to observe that contrast be present in just the correct amount, enough to give variety but not in excess, which will cause confusion.Contrast is the opposite of similarity.If similarity exists to a marked degree, the effect is monotony.On the other hand if contrast exists violently and profusely theresult will be a restless and disorganized design, which lacksrepose.Following the rule on contrast, one has to observe that contrast be present in just the correct amount, enough to give variety but not in excess, which will cause confusion.Contrast of Mass:Contrast of vertical and horizontal volumes giving a compositionin abstract form which becomes capable of housing humaninterests through the introduction of windows, doors, and floorlevels.Contrast of Direction: Horizontal and vertical details.Contrast of Treatment: Surface finish. The same material indifferent treatment, as in contrast of pattern, contrast of areas,or use of different materials.Contrast of Treatment: Surface finish. The same material indifferent treatment, as in contrast of pattern, contrast of areas,or use of different materials.REFERENCE:Architecture Form, Space And Order by Francis D.K. Ching, John,Witley & Sons, 2007.Architectural Graphics Standards, CD Rom, 2004.Concept Sourcebook by Edward White.Architectural Design by E. PickeringTHE PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION(PROPORTION)Proportion is largely a matter of relationships.It is evident by a comparison, which the eye makes between thesize, shape and tone of the various objects or parts of acomposition.There are certain geometrical shapes with good proportion suchas the circle, triangle and square.The eye judges them quickly and classifies them with nodifficulty.They are dominant shapes in a composition and for that reasonshould be used for accents.Types of Proportion:relative proportion  parts of the object as it isabsolute proportion- parts of the object or the whole to thevarious partsCirclesIn plan: a circular or square units acts as a focal point on thecenter for radiating lines.On an elevation: these same shapes will give emphasis to that particular portion in which they are incorporated.The circle and the square have been found to possess certainproperties, which recommend them as a base upon which tobegin the design.Squares to RectanglesOften, a rectangle is mistaken for a square if the rectangleapproaches a squares dimension.An observer will have a doubt to its real geometric shape.On the other hand, if its too long the observer would divide it into 2 equal spaces.Thus the rectangle to the diagonal of a square based upon theshort sides  and this is called the Golden Mean.
 
The Golden MeanInclusive rectangleExclusive rectangleTrianglesThe equilateral triangle, or one with equal sides and angles, haslong been accepted as a form with good proportions.It tapers in a regular manner form the base to the apex, carryingthe eye up to this focal point of the composition.Classical ProportionIn this regard, whenever we talk of proportion we often refer tothe Classical Orders.The Renaissance interpretation of Classical Architecture asdeveloped by Vignola and Palladio, is based upon standardizedproportions.The Greeks did not design in this manner, but it is possible forRenaissance architects, by studying a large number of Romanexamples, to strike an average, which would represent theoutstanding characteristics of these Classical elements.Basis of ProportionTraditional and Generally Accepted ModeKen-Japanese Mat (3.15 X 6.30)Manufactured proportionMode of constructionGovernment Ordinances for function (acoustics)Human proportionsHuman proportionsLe ModulorEXAMPLES OF PROPORTIONDoors should be big enough to make one walk through incomfort but not so big as to require an almost impossiblephysical effort to close them.Steps should be of such a size as to permit easy ascent anddescent.Ceiling heights must be properly proportioned to the size and thefunction of the room.Balustrade should be related to the human figure in such a waythat safety is secured.REFERENCE:Architecture Form, Space And Order by Francis D.K. Ching, John,Witley & Sons, 2007.Architectural Graphics Standards, CD Rom, 2004.Concept Sourcebook by Edward White.Architectural Design by E. PickeringTHE PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION(SCALE & BALANCE)Scale has reference to proportions, which are good for humans.It is one set of the most subtle of the elements of design andone of the most difficult to obtain.Scale deals with the relation of architectural motifs, such asdoors, windows or moldings, to each other and to the humanfigure.Architecture must be adapted to the human needs: design is amatter of the adjustment of architectural elements to meet theneeds of the human race, and proper scale should be present when this adaptation is made.Kinds of scale:Generic  size of a building element relative to other forms in itscontext.Human- size of a building element or space relative to thedimensions and proportion of a human body.Types of scale:IntimateNormalMonumentalShockingScalar sequenceScalar sequenceSimple progressionPreparation-SurpriseConstriction-relief TransitionBalance is equality.It is composition.It is the foundation upon which arrangement, harmony andadjustment of weights, tones, values, etc. are developed.Proper balance satisfies the eye with reference to the relativeimportance of the various parts of the design.Types of BalanceSYMMETRICAL - The easiest and simplest kind of balance is thepurely symmetrical type in which the elements are arranged inprecisely the same manner on either side of a central axis orline.Not only is the arrangement similar but each object is exactlylike the one occupying the corresponding position on theopposite side.In this kind of balance eye catches a glance the equality of attraction on each side of the center of the composition.All elements are duplicated  shape for shape, size for size andtone for tone. The left half of the composition is identicalTYPES OF BALANCESYMMETRICAL Formal Balance  is a type of balance whichapproach absolute symmetry but which lacks some of theessentials of this kind of composition.Formal BalanceHere the general mass and grouping of the parts may be similar,but there may exist a difference in their shapes and surfacetreatments.UNSYMMETRICAL (OCCULT BALANCE)  A more subtle andelusive and is more difficult to attain.UNSYMMETRICAL (OCCULT BALANCE) It attempts to satisfy the eye without any effort to place equalmasses at similar distances from the center of the composition.UNSYMMETRICAL (OCCULT BALANCE) It is the grouping, in aninformal manner, of elements of varying sizes and shapes.UNSYMMETRICAL (OCCULT BALANCE) One senses, rather than sees, a state of equilibrium.UNSYMMETRICAL In an informal arrangement the longer andheavier masses should be nearer the center of the group, whilethe lighter, lower and more horizontal elements may constitutethe long arm of the steelyard.UNSYMMETRICALVertical units may be introduced near the center of interest, orthe fulcrum, in order to create the desired accents.REFERENCE:Architecture Form, Space And Order by Francis D.K. Ching, John,Witley & Sons, 2007.Architectural Graphics Standards, CD Rom, 2004.Concept Sourcebook by Edward White.Architectural Design by E. Pickering
 
THE PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION(RHYTHM, UNITY & CHARACTER)RHYTHMMovement RepetitionSpacingRHYTHMUnaccentedAccentedThe different types of art with which we are familiar may bedivided into two groups:according to the way in which the impressions are conveyed toour senses oraccording to the manifestations of their qualities.Some may be permanent in their characteristics, as thoseexecuted in stone. Others may be transitory, as is sound.Kinds of ArtsSTATIC ART (permanent):ArchitectureSculpturePaintingLiteratureEVANESCENT ARTS (transitory):MusicDramaticsAn Organized Movement Architecture is compared to music: Music is an art that is heard.It is a combination of sounds arranged in such a manner as toserve a utilitarian purpose and in addition, to have an emotionalappeal.The music of the western world is based upon rhythm, melodyand harmony.Rhythm is the foundation of music.Movement is the basis of rhythm. If windows and doors arethrown into the façade of a building in a haphazard manner,there is no scheme or sense to the arrangement and again norhythm.Movement of the eye across a painting from spot to spot of similar color-the rhythmic use of colorIt may be the repetition of a similar type of line in a piece of sculpture  the rhythmic use of line.It may be found in the continuity of a series of arches formingan arcade  the rhythm of direction.UNITY Unity is the culmination of all the previously mentioned elementsof design.If structure has unity, it must have contrast, rhythm and scale.Unity suggests harmony.It means that all the unrelated parts of an architecturalarrangement are brought into proper relation to each other sothat a satisfactory composition is obtained.If unity prevails, all the unimportant parts must be kept in theirplaces and be made simply to assist the major units in the roleswhich they are to play in the development of the structure.The unity of simple geometric forms is easy to understand.They are elementary in their shapes, and no proportion of thewhole tends to detach itself and to create new forms, or centersof interest.Elementary geometric (shapes) FORMS are compact and direct;they tell a single story in the briefest possible manner.The simplest kind of unity dealing with motifs of more than onemember is to be found in ordinary repetition.If this unity would be more emphatic and interesting, an accent may be introduced into the composition, so that a dominant noteis added to the regularity of the repetition.In other words, the highest type of unity is secured if thereexists no doubt as to the presence of a central motif.In architectural composition the elements must be arranged insuch a way as to ensure the domination of the less important parts by the major masses of the building.All the units should together form a compact and coherent ensemble.Competition is one of the worst foes of unity.In studying an architectural problem, the plan receives first consideration, and here it is too easily possible, but not desirable, to have the elements competing with each other forthe place of importance.However, the elements of an elevation are more quickly seenand understood than those of the planConfusion exists because of the lack of similarity between thevarious elements employed to create a building. It is a case of unorganized competition and contrast. Dissimilarity is toopronounced.CHARACTERCharacter grows out of the function of the building and theconsideration of all the creative principles of composition.It is something, which should be kept in mind during the entireprocess of design.Throughout the development of a project the designers must ever strive to express the purpose of the building, both ingeneral composition and the use of details.Manifested character is the external expression of internalqualities.In any architecture, which is worthy of the name, the exterior of a building expresses the internal function.Classes of CharacterCharacter in architecture may be divided into three (3) types,depending upon the source of its inception and upon whetherthis source deals with the abstract or the concrete.The classes are CHARACTER from:Function  or use of the building.Association  or influence of traditional typesPersonality  or the human quality or emotional appeal.FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERThe most important kind of character in architecture is that,which results from the purpose of the building or the reason forits erection.The use of a structure naturally calls for a certain disposition of parts, and this arrangement affects the appearance of theexterior by which we largely judge characterA museum must have galleries with ample wall space and toplight, which eliminates windows and necessitates the use of skylightsA school building must contain many windows to admit thenecessary side light and to offer an interesting contrast with thepossible monotony of the class-room walls.A structure with large show windows is usually a shop for thedisplay and sale of merchandise.A factory expresses the efficient operation of the manufacturingwithinA house reflects the informal intimacy of home life.ASSOCIATED CHARACTERThis comes from the influence of ideas and impressions relatedto or growing out of the past experiences.We have come to recognize buildings by features, which hadlong been associated with that particular structure.A spire atop a building with stained glass windows has alwaystold us that it was a churchClassic Orders often indicates the presence of abank/government building.

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