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Geography Internal Assessment about Stream Discharge

Geography Internal Assessment about Stream Discharge

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Published by Firasco
The main purpose of this internal assessment is to test the hypothesis stating that the discharge of a stream increases downstream, and that there will be changes in the stream variables of depth, width and velocity. In order to be able to test the above mentioned hypothesis, data was collected at ten selected sites of the Gulp River. The research is expected to reveal a positive relationship between stream discharge and distance from source, thus moving further downstream is predicted to result in higher stream discharge. The reason for such a positive relationship is foreseen to lie within the fact that increased amounts of water, originating from precipitation, reach the river by means of surface runoff while traveling further downstream. Moreover, naturally occurring phenomena along the riverbed such as the deposition of sediment and erosion are expected to result in changes in stream variables of depth, width and velocity whilst moving further downstream. The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient shall be engaged in order to assess the strength of the relationship between the two variables. The Gulp River is a tributary of the river Geul and arises along the Schwarzenberg near the village of Hombourg. The Schwarzenberg belongs to the northern Ardennes plateau located in Belgium. In order for the Gulp River to reach the village of Gulpen in southern Limburg, it meanders its way through the hilly landscape in a northwesterly direction. It should be mentioned that the Gulp is a first order stream. It attracts many tourists whereas at the same the Gulp is essential for farming.
The main purpose of this internal assessment is to test the hypothesis stating that the discharge of a stream increases downstream, and that there will be changes in the stream variables of depth, width and velocity. In order to be able to test the above mentioned hypothesis, data was collected at ten selected sites of the Gulp River. The research is expected to reveal a positive relationship between stream discharge and distance from source, thus moving further downstream is predicted to result in higher stream discharge. The reason for such a positive relationship is foreseen to lie within the fact that increased amounts of water, originating from precipitation, reach the river by means of surface runoff while traveling further downstream. Moreover, naturally occurring phenomena along the riverbed such as the deposition of sediment and erosion are expected to result in changes in stream variables of depth, width and velocity whilst moving further downstream. The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient shall be engaged in order to assess the strength of the relationship between the two variables. The Gulp River is a tributary of the river Geul and arises along the Schwarzenberg near the village of Hombourg. The Schwarzenberg belongs to the northern Ardennes plateau located in Belgium. In order for the Gulp River to reach the village of Gulpen in southern Limburg, it meanders its way through the hilly landscape in a northwesterly direction. It should be mentioned that the Gulp is a first order stream. It attracts many tourists whereas at the same the Gulp is essential for farming.

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Published by: Firasco on Aug 27, 2008
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05/15/2013

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Firas A. (ISM IB2-A)
 – 
Geography Higher Level1
Geography Internal Assessment about Stream Discharge
Hypothesis: The discharge of a stream increases downstream. Therewill be changes in the stream variables of depth, width and velocity.
1
 
Name: Firas A.Candidate Number: 001
1
Illustration shows the Gulp river, obtained from http://www.landscapes.nl/zuid-limburg/ 
 
Firas A. (ISM IB2-A)
 – 
Geography Higher Level2
 
Site 1
……………………………………………
.
……………………
8
 
Site 2
………………………………………………...………………
11
 
Site 3
…………………………………………………...……………
13
 
Site 4
……………………………………………………...…………
15
 
Site 5
……………………………………………………...…………
17
 
Site 6
…………………………………………………...……………
19
 
Site 7
……………………………………………………...…………
21
 
Site 8
……………………………………………………...…………
23
 
Site 9
……………………………………………………
...
…………
25
 
Site 10
……………………………………………………
...
………..
284.
 
Overall Analysis and Summary
…..………………………..………….31
 5.
Conclusion………………………………………….………
..
…………..
356. Bibliography
……………………………………….…………
.
…………
36
7. Appendix………………………...…….………….…………..…………37
 
 
Firas A. (ISM IB2-A)
 – 
Geography Higher Level3
List of Illustrations
Figure 1
 – 
illustrates the drainage basin of the river Maas and the area
……………………….
5Figure 2
 – 
showing the ten sites at which measurements were taken
………………………….
6Figure 3
 – 
showing the average velocity pattern for site 1
…………………………………….8
 Figure 4
 – 
measuring the velocity at site 1 using a stopwatch and an orange
…………………9
 Figure 5
 – 
showing how the depth is greatest at midstream (erosive impact)
……
.
………….10
 Figure 6
 – 
showing the average velocity pattern for site 2
…………………………
..
……….11
 Figure 7
 – 
series of photographs showing site 2
…………………………………………...…11
 Figure 8
 – 
cross-section showing depth results obtained for site 2
…………………
..
………12
 Figure 9
 – 
showing the average velocity pattern for site 3
……………………………...……13
 Figure 10
 – 
series of photographs showing site 3
…………………………………….………13
 Figure 11
 – 
cross-section showing depth results obtained for site 3
…………………………14
 Figure 12
 – 
saltation in the river
………………………………………………………...……14
 Figure 13
 – 
showing the average velocity pattern for site 4
………………………….………15
 Figure 14
 – 
photograph showing site 4
……………………………………………….………15
 Figure 15
 – 
cross-section showing depth results obtained for site 4
…………………………16
 Figure 16
 – 
showing all kinds of possible inflows
……………………………
...
……………16
 Figure 17
 – 
showing the average velocity pattern for site 5
……………………………….…17
 Figure 18
 – 
photograph showing site 5
………………………………………………
.
………17
 Figure 19
 – 
cross-section showing depth results obtained for site 5
…………………………18
 Figure 20
 – 
showing the average velocity pattern for site 6
……………………………
.
……19
 Figure 21
 – 
cross-section showing depth results obtained for site 6
……………………...…19
 Figure 22
 – 
photograph showing site 6
………………………………………………….……20
 Figure 23
 – 
showing the average velocity pattern for site 7
……………………………….…21
 Figure 24
 – 
cross-section showing depth results obtained for site 7
…………………………22
 Figure 25
 – 
photograph showing site 7
…………………………………………………….…22
 Figure 26
 – 
showing the average velocity pattern for site 8
………………………….………23
 Figure 27
 – 
cross-section showing depth results obtained for site 8
…………………………24
 Figure 28
 – 
photograph showing site 8
……………………………………………….………24
 Figure 29
 – 
showing the average velocity pattern for site 9
………………………….………26
 Figure 30
 – 
cross-section showing depth results obtained for site 9
…………………………26
 Figure 31
 – 
showing the principle of laminar and turbulent flow
……………………………27
 Figure 32
 – 
photograph showing site 9
………………………………………………
.
………28
 Figure 33
 – 
showing the average velocity pattern for site 10
……………………………
...
…29
 Figure 34
 – 
cross-section showing depth results obtained for site 10
……………………
..
…29
 Figure 34b
 – 
photograph showing site 10
……………………………………………
.
………29
 Figure 35
 – 
map showing confluence and location of site 10
…………………………..……30
 Figure 35b
 – 
photograph showing confluence at site 10
……………………………
..
………30
 Figure 36
 – 
scatter graph showing a positive distance/discharge relationship
………….……31
 Figure 37
 – 
showing all kinds of possible inflows
………………………………………...…32
 Figure 38
 – 
average depth from source to mouth
……………………………………….……33
 Figure 39
 – 
showing average velocity from source to mouth
…………………………..……34
 Figure 40
 – 
showing width (from bank to bank)
…………………………………….………34
 Figure 41
 – 
the process of velocity and depth-interaction at a glance (appendix)
…...………40
 

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