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21.3.11

21.3.11

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Published by: Luqman Al-Bashir Fauzi on Mar 21, 2011
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02/03/2013

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RICKETTSIA
y
 
Gram negative [Cell wall (+))
y
 
P
leomorphic
y
 
Ob
ligate intracellular parasite
y
 
R
eside in cytosol of host cell
y
 
A
ssociated with an arthropod vector
y
 
E.
g:-
 
R.
prowazeki = epidemic typhus-
 
R.
typhi  murine typhus-
 
O
.
tsutsugamushi  scru
b
typhus, etc
.
 
CHLAMYDIA
y
 
Gram negative
y
 
P
leomorphic
y
 
N
on-motile
y
 
Ob
ligate intracellular parasit
y
 
E.
g-
 
C
.
trachomatis  conjunctivitis, lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)-
 
C
.
psittaci  pisttacosis-
 
C
.
pneumoniae  pneumonia, etc
.
 
MYCOPLASMA
y
 
Gram ?
y
 
Ex
ceedingly pleomorhpic [cocci, clu
b
, heli
x
, doughnut]
y
 
N
aturally lacks a cell wall
y
 
E.
g-
 
M
.
pneumoniae = atypical pneumonia (
E
aton agent)-
 
U
.
urealyticum = non-gonococcal urethritis, etc
CHLAMYDIA
O
rder: ChlamydialesFamily: ChlamydiaceaeGenus: Chlamydia & Chlamydophila(new!) Species: C
.
trachomatis, psittaci, pneumonia, oecorum
C. TRACHOMATIS
 3 Biovariations1
.
Those causeing trachoma & inclusion conjunctivitis (T
RI
C) : 14 serovars (
A
-K)2
.
Those causing lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) : 3 serovars (L
1
, L
2
, L
3
)3
.
Those causing mouse pneumonitis (Mo
P
n)
 
CHLAMYDIA
Ex
ist in 2 forms:1
.
 
E
lementary
b
ody (
E
B)2
.
 
R
eticulate
b
ody (
R
B)
E
B
y
 
Ex
traceullular
y
 
Meta
b
olically inert
y
 
I
nfectious partical
y
 
Small (300-350 nm)
y
 
G (-)
b
acteria
R
B
y
 
I
nfection of host
b
y
E
B -> in cell
y
 
800-1000nm
y
 
N
on-infectious
y
 
Meta
b
olically active
y
 
Binary fissionThe 4 spp can
b
e differentiated on the
b
asis of:-1
.
 
Growth2
.
 
N
ucleic acid profile3
.
 
P
resence of plasmids4
.
 
A
ntigenicity5
.
 
I
nclusion
b
odies (morpholigcally different)
E.
g = C
.
trachomatis produces a glycogen matri
x
in its inclusion
b
odies, which stain
b
rown with iodineHUM
A
N
CHL
A
MYD
IA
L
I
N
F
E
CT
I
O
N
STrachoma C
.
trachomatis serovar
A
, B, Ba, C
I
nclusion conjunctivitis C
.
trachomatis D->K
O
pthalmia neonatorum C
.
trachomatis D->KUrethritis, epididymitis, proctatis (in male) C
.
trachomatis D->KUrethritis, cervicitis, proctitis, saphingitis,perihepatitis, peri-appendicitis, infertility (infemales)C
.
trachomatis D->K
A
b
ortion, still
b
irth C
.
 
P
sittaciLymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) C
.
trachomatis L1->L3
P
neumonitis (infants) C
.
trachomatis D-> K
P
haryngitis, pneumonia C
.
 
P
neumoniae
P
sittacosis (ornithosis) C
.
 
P
sittaci (avian strains)
P
neumonia C
.
 
P
sittaci (ovine strains)
 
DIAGNOSIS
y
 
Culture-
 
E
m
b
ryonated eggs-
 
Tssue cultureMcCoy cells treated with cyclohe
x
imide -> stain for inclusion
b
odies or
E
B
y
 
A
ntigen detection-
 
I
mmunofluorescence-
 
E
L
I
S
A
(for antigen)
y
 
N
ucleic acid:
P
C
R
 
y
 
Serology:
 
I
gM or
I
gG (very high titre)
TREATMENT
Doc: Tetracycline (adults),
E
rythromycin (
b
a
b
ies)
O
thers: Chloramphenicols, Quinolones
PREVENTION
Vaccine: Still (-)
MYCOPLASMA
[Greek; Mykes = fungus,
P
lasma = moulded]Class: Mollicutes (soft skins)(4 orders, 5 families)Families:Mycoplasmataceae
E
ntomoplasmataceaeSpiroplasmataceae
A
choleplasmataceae
A
naeroplasmataceaeFamily: MycoplasmataceaeGenus:Mycoplasma (>100 spp)Ureaplasma (6 spp)MYC
OP
L
A
SM
A
 

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