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Wheat Document f1

Wheat Document f1

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Published by oyewolecharles
. Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology Vol. 15(1&2): 50-60.
. Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology Vol. 15(1&2): 50-60.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: oyewolecharles on Mar 21, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Triticum aestivum 
, M.D. Magaji
, and C.O. Muoneke
Department of Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Kogi State UniversityP.M.B. 1008 Anyigba, Kogi State
Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu DanfodiyoUniversity, P.M.B. 2346 Sokoto
Department of Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Michael Opara Universityof Agriculture, UmudikeABSTRACT
The influence of three sowing methods (drilling, dibbling and broadcasting) on plantestablishment, yield and yield components, as well as stem borer and bird damagewere investigated in two wheat varieties in Sokoto, Nigeria. Data obtained revealed thatcrop establishment was significantly influenced by sowing method in both croppingseasons, but not by variety. Sowing method, however, did not influence other yielddetermining components and yield significantly, nor did it influence stem borerinfestation and bird damage. There were no significant interactions between sowingmethod and variety on all parameters measured. Contrary to previous observations, theyield result obtained, showed that under similar agronomic conditions, broadcast wheatplot could give comparable yield to that obtained in dibbled or drilled wheat. Theimplication of this is that, farmers using broadcast method are not at a disadvantagebecause reduction in plant establishment, as observed in broadcast wheat plot, may becompensated by increase in tiller formation and other yield components.
Key words: Wheat, variety sowing method and pest infestation.INTRODUCTION
Wheat is the world’s most important crop, covering about 237 million hectares annuallyand accounting for 420 million tonnes (Olabanji
et. al 
., 2004). It accounts for at leastone-fifth of man’s calorie intake. It is used in the production of bread, biscuits, feeds,confectionary, and so on. Wheat has been cultivated in Nigeria for centuries (Olugbami,
et al.
, 1979). Olabanji
et al 
. (2004) observed that ample evidence exist to show thatwheat has been cultivated in Nigeria as early as 200BC, although the currently
cultivated varieties are relatively recent introduction. Ajayi (1983) observed that when acrop is introduced into a foreign country, its survival depends both on its adaptability toboth biotic and abiotic factors. He emphasized that as it is not always possible toaccurately predict the outcome of the interaction between the new crop and local pests,a programme for constant monitoring of the pest situation is usually beneficial. Withpersistent calls to either abandon or reduce the use of pesticides on farms, aninvestigation into appropriate cultural method (for example. sowing method) that willadequately control or reduce pest incidents in wheat crop can not be over emphasized.Domestic wheat production has remained at a very low level in spite of the ever – rising demand for the crop. The constraints to the cultivation of wheat in most wheatgrowing areas in Nigeria include climatic requirements, appropriate agronomic practicesand preference for the cultivation of vegetables (Ohiagu,
et al 
., 1987
. Development ofimproved agronomic practices in respect of land preparation, planting, nutrition, watermanagement, crop protection, harvest and post harvest technology have been themajor areas where researchers have concentrated their efforts. In United Kingdom,pressure on financial margin in wheat production is driving a review of all inputs, andseed represents one of the largest financial inputs in wheat production. The potential ofsaving through exploitation of crop ability to compensate for reduction in population,which may be observed when different sowing methods are used are thereforeattractive and forms important research area (Whaley,
et al 
., 2000; Li Zhang
et. al 
.,2007).With a projected population of 137.86 million people in 1997 (Ohiagu,
, wheat consumption in Nigeria was projected to reach 1.5 million metric tonnes,
with domestic production lagging behind demands. Ten years later, the prospect ofmeeting local wheat demands seem unlikely, with the demise of most river basindevelopment projects (Olabanji
et al 
. 2004). Yet yields obtained on farmers plots haveoften lagged behind world average. It has been stressed that the establishment ofadequate crop stand is a prerequisite for a successful crop and this depends onseedling emergence, which may be affected by sowing method employed by farmers. Ithas been generally observed that seed sowing is an important operation requiring,utmost care. In early American history, wheat was sown broadcast (Kipps, 1983),however, broadcasting has been observed to reduce plant establishment as seeds aresaid to be lost to pests and unfavourable weather conditions. Consequently, high seedrates have been recommended when seeds are broadcast in order to compensate forseed loss. Presently in America almost all wheat is drilled. The main reason given fordrilling wheat was better germination, which resulted in higher stands compared tobroadcasting (Kipps, 1983). It was stressed that broadcasting even when followed byharrowing or raking does not bring seed in perfect contact with the soil for adequatewater uptake. In Nigeria, sowing methods employed by farmers vary considerably fromarea to area. In Kadawa, Kano State, the vast majority of the farmers broadcast theirseeds, while farmers in Ringim, Jakarade and Hedjia dibbled either on the ridge or onthe flat. It has been observed that the method of sowing employed by farmers isbasically determined by the available technology rather than by the expected yield.If Nigeria must meet her demands for wheat, there is the need for improvedmethods of wheat cropping and large scale production with ultimate focus on expectedyields. The general consensus is that establishing adequate plant stand is a prerequisite

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