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5. Mycobacterium

5. Mycobacterium

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Published by: Luqman Al-Bashir Fauzi on Mar 21, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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02/03/2013

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Mycobacterium
(Fungus Bacterium)
Classification: (Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology)
y
 
K
ingdom II: Bacteria
y
 
Ph
ylum VIII: Firmicutes
y
 
Section XXIII: T
h
e Actinobacteria
y
 
Class I: Actinobacteria (including: Actinomyces, Corynebacteria, Norcardia, R
h
odococcus)
y
 
O
rder V: Actinomycetals
y
 
Suborder III: Corynebacterinaea
y
 
Family IV: Mycobacteriaceae
y
 
G
enus: Mycobacterium (only 1 genus, but >100 species!)To include a species under t
h
is genus, t
h
e minimum standard is:
y
 
Acid (alco
h
ol) fastness :- Resists decolourization by acidified alco
h
ol after stained wit
h
basicfusc
h
in)
y
 
P
resence of mycolic acid (in cell wall)
y
 
A
G+
C (
G
uanine
+
Cytosine) content of DNA of 61-71 mol %
G
enus Mycobacterium
y
 
At least 100 species to date!
y
 
Causative agents fori.
 
Tuberculosisii.
 
Leprosyiii.
 
Similar diseases in animalsiv.
 
Some saprop
h
ytes
opportunists
T
uberculosis
y
 
Disease of great antiquity
y
 
Afflicted Neolit
h
ic man (circa 10,000B.C)
y
 
Described in Vedas as Raja-Yaks
h
ma (~
K
ing of diseases)
y
 
W
ell described by Hippocrates (400 B.C)
y
 
Caused more suffering & deat
h
t
h
an any ot
h
er infection
y
 
W
as referred to as t
h
e 
W
h
ite plague
H
istory
y
 
Mycobacterium  among first bacteria discovered
y
 
1874: Armauer Hansen  Bacillus Leprae
y
 
1882: Robert
K
oc
h
 Bacillus Tuberculosis
y
 
1884: Robert
K
oc
h
K
oc
h
s
P
ostulates
y
 
Subsequently bacillus
Mycobacterium (mould-like pellicle)
 
y
 
1900s:
O
t
h
er spp. Discovered (opportunistic, environmental, non-tuberculous)
Mycobacterium: Acid Fast Bacilli
Standard staining met
h
ods
y
 
Z
ie
h
l-Neelsen (
h
ot staining)
y
 
K
inyoun (cold staining)
y
 
Auramine o fluorescence
Z
iehl  Neelsen Stain
y
 
Basic fuc
h
sin
+
p
h
enol (en
h
ance fuc
h
sin penetration into lipids)
y
 
W
as
h
 
y
 
Acid alco
h
ol (decolorizer)
y
 
W
as
h
 
y
 
Met
h
ylene Blue (Counter stain)
O
ther Acid Fast
O
rganisms
y
 
Norcardia
y
 
Actinomyces
y
 
Corynebacterium
y
 
R
h
odococcus
C
ulture
y
 
M. Leprae  HAS N
O
T BEEN
G
R
O
W
N
O
N CULTURE!
y
 
O
t
h
ers:-
 
Lowenstein  Jensen (L J) medium-
 
Middlebrook 7H9 (liquid)-
 
Middlebrook 7H10 (Agar based)-
 
Middlebrook 7H11 (Agar based too!)
y
 
Clinical specimens : 7 days  6 weeks (Sometimes, even up to 12 weeks or more!)
y
 
As a w
h
ole, mycobacterium are VERY slow growing
Mycobacterium
Acid Fast Bacilli
y
 
Non-motile
y
 
Non-spore forming
y
 
W
eakly
G
ram (
+
)
y
 
Aerobic or microaerop
h
ilic (M. Tuberculosis is strictly aerobic)
y
 
Straig
h
t or slig
h
tly curved rod-s
h
aped
y
 
Some coccobacillary-
 
Filamentous-
 
Branc
h
ed forms
y
 
Some spp produced pigments (yellow
orange)-
 
In t
h
e dark (scotoc
h
romogens)
 
-
 
After exposure to lig
h
t (p
h
otoc
h
romogens)-
 
No-pigmentation (Non-c
h
romogens)
y
 
Some slow growers (>7/7 to form visible colonies)
y
 
Some rapid growers (<7/7)
y
 
1959  Runyon divided mycobacterium into 4 groupsi.
 
G
roup I =
Ph
otoc
h
romogensii.
 
G
roup II = Scotoc
h
romogensiii.
 
G
roup III = Non-C
h
romogensiv.
 
G
roup IV = Rapid growers
y
 
G
roups I-III are slow growersMycobacterium:
y
 
Can be isolated from a variety of sources-
 
Clinical specimens-
 
Environment (water, soil, dust)
y
 
Can survive for long periods of time
y
 
As pat
h
ogensi.
 
O
bligate pat
h
ogensa.
 
M. tuberculosisb.
 
M. bovisc.
 
M. africanumd.
 
M. ascaticume.
 
M. farcinogensf.
 
M.
h
aemop
h
ilumg.
 
M. leprae
h
.
 
M. malmoensei.
 
M. microtij.
 
M. paratuberculosisk.
 
M. s
h
imodeil.
 
M. Simiaem.
 
M. Szulgaiii.
 
Facultative pat
h
ogensa.
 
M. aviumb.
 
M. c
h
elonaec.
 
M. fortuitumd.
 
M. kansasiie.
 
M. ulceransf.
 
M. terraeg.
 
M. genavense
h
.
 
M. intracellularei.
 
M. marinumj.
 
M. senegalensek.
 
M. scrofulaceuml.
 
M. xenopim.
 
M. malmoense
TU
BER
CULO
SIS
y
 
C
h
ronic granulomatous disease
y
 
Affects
h
umans and many mammals
y
 
At one time  single most important infectious disease of 
h
umans (
1/7
t
h
of all deat
h
sworldwide)
y
 
P
resently:-
 
1/3 world population infected-
 
Cause about 3 million deat
h
s per year (>5% of all deat
h
s)-
 
Is becoming a reemerging disease because of HIV
y
 
Caused by 4 very closely related spp:

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